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Study Guide Exam 3

# Study Guide Exam 3 - Study Guide(1st Half 1 Experiments a...

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Study Guide (1 st Half) 1. Experiments a. Helsabeck (1975) a.i. Performance of syllogisms improves when people are shown how to use diagrams or generate specific examples a.i.A. Only works if you try to find ways to show the syllogism to be false b. Rips & Marcus (1977) b.i. Evidence on conditional reasoning b.ii. People are generally good at inferring the truth of the consequent given evidence that the antecedent is true ( modus ponens ) b.ii.A. Found that 100% of their sample drew this correct conclusion b.iii. Denying the consequent ( modus tollens ) is more difficult b.iii.A. Found that only 57% of sample drew this conclusion c. Wason & Johnson-Laird (1972) c.i. Wason task c.i.A. Card task c.i.B. 4 cards visible each has a letter on one side and a number on the other (E, K, 4, 7) c.i.C. Given the rule: If a card has a vowel on one side, it has an even number on the other side. c.i.D. 33% turned over the E card (correct choice) c.i.E. 4% turned over the correct combination (E card- modus ponens, 7 card- modus tollens) c.i.F. E card and 4 card 46% c.i.G. Our tendency is to either stop after turning over the E card or continuing to search for more positive evidence d. Banks et. al (1972) d.i. Semantic congruity effect d.i.A. A person’s decision is faster when the dimension being judged matches or is congruent with the implied semantic dimension in the figure d.i.B. Balloon illustration (pg. 426) e. Holyoak & Mah’s (1982) e.i. Your expertise and living in a geographical area distorts your geographical distancing between places e.ii. Had subjects make distance or location comparisons, then determine what their mental maps are like e.iii. When no particular geographical reference point was given, people based their judgments on their own local viewpoint e.iv.

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Study Guide Exam 3 - Study Guide(1st Half 1 Experiments a...

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