Paradigm: a broad framework that guides the work of scholars over a long period of time, as they
conduct research and develop specific theories.
Anomalies: An inconsistency or discrepant observation that challenges the paradigm.
Information Transmission Paradigm: how communication transmits accuracy from 1 place to another.
Constitutive Paradigm: How communication creates situations, social acts, and relationships.
Public and Mass Communication:
: to make an argument, not to have an argument.
Goal: to convince critical audience of
the acceptability by reasonable justification.
Standpoints and arguments: propositions
: assertions, statements about: affairs, opinions, etc.
Rules – Freedom Rule
: freedom to argue. 2) Burden of Proof
: defend if called out.
Relate ideas to standpoints, Validity:
arguments must follow.
standpoints/arguments; imply them unambiguously.
??violation of an argumentation rule
: to influence others by modifying their beliefs, values, or attitudes by means of persuasion.
Pathos: sentiment, emotion
List of 3/(clap trap), contrasts:???
Non-verbal Communication in speeches
: 50% how you look (carry yourself) 40% sound, 10% what
: animated/sociable, how interesting of a speaker you are.
hostage (hands folded in front), Straight-jacket (arms folded), etc.
: eye contact at ends of your sentences
: “steeple” position, not too exaggerated.
: frame of dominance orientation (F.D.O) – establishing by feet – occasional body
movement, reduce distance from audience
: non-verbal communication (pitch variety, loudness), vocalics – hesitation markers,
Hedgers/qualifiers (like, I guess)
Vocalizing punctuation exercise
: say: comma, or period in rehearsal. Then don't say it in real life to
eliminate: ummm, like, etc.
Speak slower when audience favors standpoint, faster when audience disagrees with
is internet, wills, scrolls, cave drawings, calendars, cellphones.
: media comm:
technology that you use (broadcasters), and plural
for medium – anything to use to communicate.
: communication mediated by
technology (media), other objects/artifacts (ex, relay race, the baton) Concepts, ideas, principles, and
Communication medium as a tool
: technology tools that extend our ability to create, translate, receive,
and process: visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, or tactile messages.
Extension of Man