midterm 2 study guide

midterm 2 study guide - What does it mean to say experts as...

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What does it mean to say experts as "claims makers"? Claims maker's gain media representation. They try to promote their favored frames to journalists. Claims makers have cultural authority (the power of being able to influence others easily, often due to being part of a particular group with specialized knowledge) making it easier to create belief. Nurses, doctors, scientists, pharmacists etc are the most trusted experts. These people didn't always have cultural authority, they had to fight for it throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. Cultural authority was shifted from religious leaders to these groups. Ivory tower thinking of science: This term is used to describe behavior when a person thinks only of their own situation or of a situation that is financially or socially higher than their own. This behavior tends to be unaware or uncaring of the lower financial or social situations and the effects on those. Science is biased: The kind of science we produce is specific to our culture. Studies are supported by pharmaceutical companies for the desired outcome of creating profit. What was the eugenics movement? Founded in 1883 by Francis Galton. Inspired by selective breeding; encourages the best people to have children to create healthier, stronger, and smarter population. Argued that crime, poverty and all social pathologies were inherited. * Example of how well-intentioned science can carry with it all the social, cultural biases of world that it was created in. Difference between positive and negative eugenics: Positive eugenics is aimed at encouraging reproduction among the genetically advantaged. Possible approaches include financial and political stimuli, targeted demographic analysis, in vitro fertilization, egg transplants, and cloning. Negative eugenics is aimed at lowering fertility among the genetically disadvantaged. This includes abortions, sterilization, and other methods of family planning. Eugenics in social movements: M arriage laws prohibited miscegenation (mixing races) gained scientific legitimacy It was a social and racial crime. Eugenicists believe races were biologically different. Immigrations laws - eugenics arguments helped stem immigration of inferior stock Subtle forms of bias: The world around us provides tools that are 'good for thinking' This is how eugenic thinking worked, those racial hierarchies were just common sense. Science still produces assumptions about race, gender, class and sexuality. Experts benefit from "ownership of problems" E example(pediatric radiologists). Experts have disciplinary allegiances - guarded by peer review and publication/tenure practice. Explicit forms of bias: Suppression, distortion, manipulation and fabrication of science. Tobacco/pharmaceutical industry, political administrations.
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midterm 2 study guide - What does it mean to say experts as...

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