Lecture+3+-+Mediation+_+History - COM354: Mediated...

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Unformatted text preview: COM354: Mediated Communica3on Media&on Sept. 13, 2011 Prof. Ma>hew Weber Class #3: Media3on • A few reminders, etc. • What is media3on? • Thinking about theories – Technological determinism 2 Media3on: Through the Medium • Marshall McLuhan  ­ Medium is the Message – What is meant by “the medium is the message” – What is meant by “the medium is the massage” – What characteris3cs of the Internet as a medium are relevant when thinking about the internet as a message/massage? 3 The Medium is the Message • The message of any medium or technology is the change of scale or pace or pa>ern that it introduces into human affairs. The railway did not introduce movement or transporta3on or wheel or road into human society, but it accelerated and enlarged the scale of previous human func3ons, crea3ng totally new kinds of ci3es and new kinds of work and leisure. This happened whether the railway func3oned in a tropical or northern environment, and is quite independent of the freight or content of the railway medium. (McLuhan, Understanding Media, NY, 1964, p. 8) 4 McLuhan: Laws of Media (1988) • Proposed 4 “laws of media” for examining the impact of any new interac3ons through a given medium – – – – What does the artefact enhance of intensify or make possible or accelerate? What is pushed aside or obsolesced by the new ‘organ’? What older, previously obsolesced ground is brought back by the new ‘organ’? What is the reversal poten3al of the new form? 5 Technological Determinism • The Technologically Determinis3c View – Technology is an external force that “impacts” social life and alters history. • Dominant with the transi3on to modernity. – – – – Late 19th century – first two decades of the 20th century Changes in social, economic, poli3cal, cultural, and personal percep3ons New technologies and communica3on All altered personal 3es and community life • People perceived technology as promo3ng changes. – An opportunity – A threat 6 Technological Determinism • Technologies change history by transferring their “essen3al quali3es” to their users, imprin3ng themselves on users’ individual and collec3ve selves (Claude Fischer, 1992) – impact ­imprint model • Media choice – technological features have consequences  ­ but people make choices about which media they use 7 Technological Determinism • Generally, the technologically determinis3c view treats outcomes are being either dystopic or utopic • Dystopian: – mediated communica3on weakens the quality of social interac3ons – mediated communica3on is not real communica3on – mediated communica3on is decep3ve • Utopian: – mediated communica3on allows for new rela3onships – mediated communica3on creates equality – mediated communica3on brings families together 8 The Socially Determinis3c View • Technology is the embodiment or symptom of a deeper cultural logic; technologies are constantly reinterpreted by users and allow new uses to achieve social goals. • This is a newer approach, developed as a cri3cism of the Technical Determinis3c view. 9 The Affordance View • A middle posi3on sta3ng that users are represented in “nego3a3ons” that reshape innova3ons and channel their use by the purchase decisions of individual customers and the actual use to which those individuals put the technology. • Affordances are defined as: – “The proper3es of objects determine the possibili3es for ac3on”; the characteris3cs of a technological device that are more or less directly available for the end user. 10 Breaking Down New ICTs • The introduc3on of new technology creates “inflec3on points” in society – Tradi3onal social and cultural standards are applied by society to new technology – New norms develop over 3me through a process of appropria3on and re ­ incorpora3on 11 Breaking Down New ICTs creative commons: Garielle 12 Breaking Down New ICTs • Modern research is moving away from a focus on the technological ar3fact, to a focus on the effects of the technology (variable ­ centered) • Seven key variables we will focus on include: – – – – – – – Interac3vity Temporal structure Social cues Storage Replicability Reach Mobility 13 The History of CMC Development of Early Computers • John Mauchly & J. Eckert – Designed ENIAC  ­ 1946 • Robert Noyce (1927  ­ 1990) – Fairchild Semiconductor  ­ 1957 || Intel  ­ 1968 – Co ­invented integrated circuit in 1959 • Douglas Engelbart (b. 1925) – Inventor who studied computers – 1970  ­ patented the first computer “mouse” 15 16 Development of Early Computers • Early development is largely a>ributed to processes of “bricolage” – – – – Levi ­Strauss (1962)  ­ The Savage Mind Spontaneous ac3vity and ac3on; breaking with tradi3on or expected norms Tinkering Turkle (1995): The bricoleur style • IP – Paul Baran (RAND) – Lawrence Roberts & Robert Kahn (MIT) 17 ARPA & CMC • DoD  ­ ARPA – ARPAnet (1969) – ARPA funded HCI research in the 60s & 70s • Englebart & the Augmenta3on Research Center • Growth of the Personal Computer Revolu3on (pt 1) – Homebrew Computer Club – PARC & Alto – 1975  ­ Microsos BASIC • Open le>er to hobbyists – 1984  ­ the first Apple computer ad 18 19 20 CMC & the personal computer • Adop3on of personal computers led to growth of CMC technologies – ARPAnet – ARPA funded HCI research in the 60s & 70s • Growth of the Personal Computer Revolu3on (Pt. 2) – 1980s  ­ BBS – ARPANET  ­> Internet  ­> WWW (1991) • Tim Berners Lee 21 22 CMC & the personal computer • Early forms of CMC – electronic mailing lists • SF ­LOVERS – MUDs • Lamdamoo – MOOs – IRC • The WELL • USENET – Founded in 1979 – By 1990, several million users • Allowed for interac3on on a global level 23 24 Thursday: • Our first full week – History & core theories, con3nued • Two ar3cles to read for Tuesday: – CMC Ch. 4 – Baym Ch. 4 25 ...
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