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Lecture+4+-+CMC+Theories - COM354: Mediated ...

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Unformatted text preview: COM354: Mediated Communica3on CMC Theories Sept. 15, 2011 Prof. Ma>hew Weber Class #3: Media-on • Reading for Class • Recap • A bit more history • Core CMC theories 2 Reading for Class • If Tuesday’s quiz is a good predictor, we’re in trouble – 60% answered 0 of the 2 quesFons correctly • Read for key ideas / key concepts – I will highlight main ideas in my lectures – Bring quesFons to class from the readings – I will leave Fme for discussion of readings & specific points • Exams will test you ability to synthesize lecture (50%) and readings (50%) • SFll lost? Come to office hours or email me for a Fme to meet. 3 Determinism & Affordances • TradiFonal thinking on CMC has focused on the impact of technology on communicaFon processes – Technological Determinism - technology determines effect • Media Choice - a subset that includes human agency – Social Determinism - society determines effect – Affordances - Users negoFate with producers; focus on affordances of tech • Development of CMC – CompeFng perspecFves on role of technology in society • Utopian vs. Dystopian • Echoed in development - Homebrew vs. Bill Gates 4 CMC & the personal computer • AdopFon of personal computers led to growth of CMC technologies – ARPAnet – ARPA funded HCI research in the 60s & 70s • Growth of the Personal Computer RevoluFon (Pt. 2) – 1980s - BBS – ARPANET - > Internet - > WWW (1991) • Tim Berners Lee 5 6 CMC & the personal computer • Early forms of CMC – electronic mailing lists • SF- LOVERS – MUDs • Lambdamoo (hip://www.lambdamoo.info/) – MOOs – IRC /ICQ • The WELL • USENET – Founded in 1979 – By 1990, several million users • Allowed for interacFon on a global level 7 8 CMC & the personal computer • Social Networking Sites – 1997 - sixdegrees.com – 1999 - LiveJournal.com – 2005 - Facebook.com • MMORPG – Neverwinter Nights – World of Warcram • Online DaFng • Mobile Planorms 9 Core theories of CMC Forms of CMC: Microchannel Communica-on • Instant Messaging – Popularized by AIM - originated with IRC, ICQ • SMS - short message service – 160 character limits – 2007 - > 2008 - number of SMSs tripled in the US to 1 trillion messages • Microblogging – Twiier is the main form we know – Facebook employs microblogging – ranges from phaFc to informaFve • New tools create inflecFon points; communicaFon norms are changing • How does we understand the changing nature of relaFonships as a result? 11 12 13 Microchannels: IM/SMS/Microblogging • Instant Messaging 14 Microchannels: IM/SMS/Microblogging • SMS 15 Microchannels: IM/SMS/Microblogging • SMS 16 Microchannels: IM/SMS/Microblogging • SMS 17 Microchannels: IM/SMS/Microblogging • Microblogging 18 Microchannels: IM/SMS/Microblogging • Microblogging 19 Forms of CMC: Microchannel Communica-on • New tools create inflecFon points; communicaFon norms are changing • How does we understand the changing nature of relaFonships as a result? 20 Social Construc-on Theory & SCOT • Proposes that reality is a social construcFon • Four premises of social construcFon: – 1. Rather than objecFvely, human beings know the world subjecFvely, through experience which is influenced largely by language – 2. Through social interacFon, categories of language and meaning emerge within a specific context at a parFcular point in Fme – 3. CommunicaFon convenFons determine how meanings are understood at a parFcular point in Fme. – 4. Paierns of communicaFon lead to the social construcFon of reality • Focused on the symbolic (“symbolic indicators of our realiFes”) • Level: micro/macro 21 Systems Theory • Drawn from von Bertalanffy’s general systems theory • In comm, extends from Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson’s (1967) Pragma&cs of Human Communica&on • Seven fundamental elements – – – – – – – NonsummaFvity Interdependence Hierarchy InteracFon with the environment Homeostasis Morphogenesis Equifinality 22 Systems Theory • Systems theory focuses on interacFons across levels, and with the surrounding environment – Social interacFon is complex and interconnected 23 Social Exchange Theory • Extends from economics and small groups research • Individuals weigh benefits and costs based on expectaFons of the relaFonship – Comparison level: best outcome anFcipated in other available relaFonships • Key concepts – Reciprocity – Fairness – NegoFated Rules – PotenFal gains: informaFon, approval, respect, power, group gain, personal saFsfacFon 24 Social Penetra-on Theory • InFmacy in relaFonships develops over Fme as people disclose more informaFon to each other – Breadth – Depth • Four- stage process of relaFonship development – – – – – OrientaFon Stage Exploratory AffecFve Stage AffecFve Stage Stable Stage DepenetraFon • InformaFon disclosed: cultural / sociological / psychological 25 Strong & Weak Ties • Dyadic connecFons in social relaFonships are not all equal • Four variables of dyads – – – – Fme emoFonal intensity inFmacy reciprocal service • Ties can be categorized on a range from weak to strong 26 Bridging & Bonding Theory • Parallels Granoveier’s strong/weak Fes • Two types of relaFonships - bridging and bonding – Bridging - occur when individuals make connecFons across social networks – Bonding - exclusive & generally reinforce exisFng group boundaries 27 Uses & Gra-fica-on • Individuals consciously choose and use media to graFfy needs • Key assumpFons – – – – Individuals engage in goal- seeking Individuals make choices as the use media Audience members are able to self- report graFficaFons behind choices Researchers should not make value- judgments about media and message choices • GraFficaFons include informaFon seeking; entertainment; personal idenFty 28 SIDE Model • Absence of nonverbal cues leads users to form impressions based on social groups & categories – Unique aspects of the online experience reinforce conformity to online group norms – Cues that do occur take on greater value – Individuals over- airibute as a result 29 SIP Model • Social InformaFon Processing: CMC lacks a product of Fme & message quanFty – Cues that are lacked must be supplanted in the context of the message • Users adjust to the lack of non- verbal cues by seeking out other cues that have generally not been considered – chronemic – language – content 30 Hyperpersonal Model • The absence of non- verbal cues results in selecFve self- presentaFon and partner idealizaFon • As a result, CMC exchanges can be more inFmate than those of face- to- face encounters • As a result: – The lack of cues enables a greater control over impressions; parFcipants devote more cogniFon to communicaFon at hand – Asynchronous nature of CMC can allow for delay in response; allows respondents to plan reacFons – Feedback loops are stronger for the same reasons 31 Next Week: • Tuesday: MediaFon & Sociability – Putnam - Ch. 1 - Bowling Alone – CMC Ch. 12 • Thursday: CMC & Personal RelaFonships – CMC Ch. 6 – Boase & Wellman arFcle 32 ...
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