Chapter 5 outline worksheet (3).docx - Anatomy and...

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Anatomy and PhysiologyChapter 5: Integumentary SystemI.IntroductionoThe three layers of the skin are:1.Epidermis2.Dermis3.HypodermisoThe two primary functions of the integumentary system are:1.Protection of inner organs and tussues2.Vital in homeostasis.II.Layers of the SkinA. EpidermisFunctions: protection, waterproof, prevent infection, protect against UV,protect from mechanical injuryKeratin.1.What is keratin? intercellular, fibrous protein that gives hair, nails, andskin hardness and water-resistance
2.How is keratin made? I am not sure.Five Layers of the Epidermis1.Stratum basaleoCharacteristics/functions:oDeepest layero• Single layer of basal cells:ocuboidal-shaped stem cell that is the precursor ofokeratinocyteso• Cells divide here (constantly going throughomitosis), move up and out and eventually dieo(stratum corneum)o• Cell membrane of older basal cells thickeno(keratinization)o• Develop desmosomes that fasten to each othero(waterproof)oContains these cells:1.Precursors of keratinocytes are called_____merkel_________ cells.2.Pigment-producing cells are called___melanocytes_________.3.Sensory cells are called ________Merkel cell____________.2.Stratum spinosumoCharacteristics/functions:Thickest layer• Contains desmosomes(“spiny”)• Eight to 10 layers ofkeraniocytes
oContains these cells:1.Eight to 10 layers of ______Karaniocytes________________.At this timethese cells release a ________________________ thatmakes skin waterproof.2.Macrophage cells are called _______________.3.Stratum granulosumoCharacteristics/functions:oPushed up cells from stratumospinosumo• Cells become flatter,omembranes thicken, andothey produce a lot of keratinoand keratohyalin (“grainy”)o• Nuclei and other cellularoorganelles disintegrates asocell dies – leaving keratin,okeratohyalin, and cellomembraneoThe cells become _____Flatter______ and the cells produce a lot of_keratine____________ and ______karetohyalin________________which appears “grainy” and gives this layer it’s name GRANulosum.4.Stratum lucidumoCharacteristics: Present only where skin is thick (palms, soles, anddigits) • Composed of dead, flattened keratinocytes. • Denselypacked, waterproofcoPresent only where skin is thick like:
oComposed:5.Stratum corneumoCharacteristics/functions: Most superficial layer, exposed to outsideenvironment • Fully keratinized (cornification) layer (dead cells) • 15to 30 layers of cells • The entire layer is replaced every 4 weeks •

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Sebaceous gland, Eccrine sweat glands

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