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DurkheimJune30DivisionOutline - Development of Sociological...

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Development of Sociological Theory Manjusha Nair Key points Functionalism Division of Labor in Society, 1893 Social integration and regulation Emile Durkheim [1858-1917] “Sociology can … be defined as the science of institutions, of their genesis, and of their functioning.” The Rules of Sociological Method Emile Durkheim [1858-1917] Functionalism The analysis of social and cultural phenomena in terms of the functions they perform in a socio-cultural system. Society is conceived of as a system of interrelated parts in which no part can be understood in isolation from the whole. A change in any part is seen as leading to a certain degree of imbalance, which in turn results in changes in other parts of the system and to some extent to a reorganization of the system as a whole. Emile Durkheim [1858-1917] Three important elements of Functionalism The general interrelatedness, or interdependence, of the system’s parts The existence of a “normal” state of affairs, or a state of equilibrium, comparable to the normal or healthy state of an organism Emile Durkheim [1858-1917] Functionalism Example: Function of family
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Different functions for father and mother Breadwinning and nurturing Stability is the normal thing Why do mother and father work together in harmony? Shared values. Value consensus means that individuals will be morally committed to their society. Other examples? Emile Durkheim [1858-1917] Division of Labor: What is the basis for integration and solidarity in human societies? What is the basis for integration and solidarity in human societies? The Division of Labor is about the shifting basis of social solidarity as societies evolve from simple to a complex one.
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