So+you+think+gestures

So+you+think+gestures - So You Think Gestures Are...

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So You Think Gestures Are Nonverbal? By David McNeill, 1985
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Hypothesis: l Gestures and speech are both part of same psychological process. l They share the same computational stage. l Gestures are a “verbal” expression.
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Counterarguments: 1. Gestures are like photos held up while speaking…have nothing to do with sentence generation. 3. Gesture is a translation of sentence into different medium. 4. Gestures are also generated from the verbal plan.
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McNeill’s Hypotheses are… l Contrary to “body language.” l Contrary to linguistic analysis .
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Gestures In this study are: l Acts of speaking accompanied by movement of arms and hands. Have been categorized by Ekman and Friesen (1969) as l Pictograms l Ideograms l Illustrators l Batons
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Gestures … l Occur during speech l Are synchronized with linguistic units. l Perform text functions (like speech). l Dissolve (like speech) in aphasia. l Develop together with speech in children.
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Gestures … l Share close parallels with speech: l Temporal l Semantic l Pragmatic l Pathological l Developmental
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Gestures … l Are not interpretable in the absence of speech. l Are individual and spontaneous. l Are outside any special codes that regulate them. l Show cross-cultural similarities.
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Types of Gestures l Emblems l Referential l Discourse oriented
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not talking about Emblems … l Emblems Are l gestures having specific social codes of their own. l Have conventional paraphrases or names (“the finger”). l Are used as unspoken words. l Are learned as separate symbols. l “Italianate Gesture.”
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Gestures Considered Here … l Are manual symbols l Saussure’s definition – semiotic entities l Are NOT translations of sentences l Display motor-speech synchrony
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Referential Gesture Synchronization “and she dashes out of the house.” Dynam ic stroke: Hand shows dashing out Static stroke: Hand keeps in position with fingers spread
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Gestures occur only during speech l Gesture production and speaking are virtually restricted to the same situations l Why? l gesture production is part of a signal system used to extend the speaker's claim over the l or the motor arousal needed to produce speech generalizes and induces activity in other parts of the body. l Notice: Listeners rarely gesture
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Synchronization in loss/Development l Unity demonstrated by l ability of speakers to transfer linguistic functions between speech and gesture during silences (hesitations) and during fluent speech. l Beats emphasize discourse and inter-item relations where there is discontinuity or contrast. l aphasia where speech and gesture dissolve together l children where speech and gesture develop together
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Gestures during or Before speech l Majority of gestures occur during the speaker's actual speech articulation l 90% of all gestures in a sample of six narrations occurred during active speech output l 10% of gestures that occurred in silence were immediately followed by speech output. l
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course COMMUNICAT 192:201 taught by Professor Coan during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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So+you+think+gestures - So You Think Gestures Are...

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