The+Diplomatic+Track+1991-2010 - The Diplomatic Track and...

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Unformatted text preview: The Diplomatic Track and its Demise The Oct 30th, 1991: US’s first time as a sole superpower. Initiates the 1991: Madrid peace conference: Israel, Syria, Lebanon & the PLO. First ever direct talks and launching of multilateral negotiations on: water, environment, arms control, refugees and economic develop water, July 13th, 1992: Yitzhak Rabin wins Israeli elections. Declares 1992: “openness to new ideas”. Shimon Peres is his foreign minister “openness August 24th, 1992: in his first major speech as PM Rabin indicates 1992: that a Palestinian State could be an option and “land-for-peace” may include the Golan Heights may January 16th, 1993: The law banning meetings with the PLO is 1993: repealed by the Israeli parliament repealed Secret meetings between Israeli and Palestinian officials begin at Secret Oslo, Norway, January-August 1993 Oslo, Peres and Arafat exchange secret correspondence: agree on Peres “Gaza and Jericho First” plan, May 1993 “Gaza September 9th, 1993: Rabin and Arafat sign letters of recognition September 13th, 1993: Israel and the PLO sign a Declaration of 1993: Principles (DOP) for a Palestinian self rule- The Oslo Accord The Implementing Oslo Implementing May 4th, 1994: Gaza-Jericho agreement is signed in Cairo May 13th, 1994: Israel hands over control of Jericho to the PLO May 18th, 1994: same procedure in Gaza July 1st, 1994: Arafat returns to Palestine. Greeted in Gaza July 25th, 1994: Rabin and Hussein declare end of state of war between Israel and Jordan between October 1st, 1994: Gulf states lift the Arab boycott against Israel October 26th, 1994: peace treaty between Jordan and Israel Dec 10, 1994: Nobel Peace Prize for Rabin, Peres and Arafat September 24th, 1995: second phase of Oslo is signed- Israeli 1995: withdrawal from other Palestinian cities in West Bank (Oslo II) withdrawal October 25th, 1995: Israeli Army evacuates Jenin December 7-27, 1995: Israeli army leaves all major Palestinian December cities except Hebron cities January 15th, 1997: Arafat and Netanyahu sign the Hebron 1997: agreement: Israeli forces leave the city center agreement: Impediments on the Oslo Path Impediments The Extreme-Moderates Thesis Numerous hit-and-run attacks of Hamas and Islamic Jihad on Numerous Israeli soldiers and civilians Israeli February 25th, 1994: a Jewish settler massacres 29 Palestinians in 1994: the Hebron central Mosque the Point of rapid escalation: Palestinian extremists retaliate with a Point series of massive suicide bombing attacks series November 4th, 1995: Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated in Tel Aviv by 1995: a Jewish zealot Jewish January 5th, 1996: Hamas leader and the mastermind of suicide 1996: bombing Yahya Ayyash (the “engineer”) is killed by Israel bombing Feb-March 1996: Hamas avenges with the worse suicide attacks Feb-March to date. 60 Israeli civilians are killed in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv to April 12th, 1996: Hezbollah starts bombing Northern Israel to help 1996: Hamas. Israel invades Lebanon in operation Grapes of Wrath Hamas. May 29th, 1996: Netanyahu and the right-wing Likud win Israeli May 1996: elections. Victory attributed to back-lash against Oslo elections. September 24th, 1996: Netanyahu authorizes opening the Western 1996: Wall tunnel. Riots in East Jerusalem and West Bank Wall January-July 1997: Suicide bombing continue in increasing rate January-July and scope all over Israel. Opponents of Oslo gain popularity and October 23rd, 1998: the Wye Plantation talks between PLO and 1998: Israel to salvage the faltering Oslo momentum (Ariel Sharon) Israel In the meantime: the US is pre-occupied with another emerging In enemy: al Qaida and its founder Osama bin laden enemy: August 7th, 1998: al-Qaida’s murderous attack on US embassies 1998: in Tanzania and Kenya, 200 dead in August 20th, 1998: US bombs al-Qaida’s bases in Afghanistan, 1998: Sudan and Iraq keeling scores of civilians Sudan American moves further galvanize fundamental Palestinian American extremists against peace and reconciliation with Israel. The US faces a severe setback in credibility as a fair mediator faces The general mood is shifting fast: somber and pessimistic. The ‘Oslo spirit’ is all but gone ‘Oslo May 17th, 1999: disillusioned Israelis seek a new redeemer- most 1999: decorated soldier and tough-talking Ehud Barak elected PM decorated The ‘Barak factor’ kicks in: respected by Palestinians and revered The by Israelis, Barak hits it off with Clinton and Arafat by September 4th, 1999: commemorating the 7th anniversary of Oslo in Sharm al-Sheikh. September 2000 is set as target date for permanent solution permanent October 5th, 1999: the ‘Safe Passage’ agreement between Gaza 1999: and West Bank (Hebron) is signed and December 15th, 1999: President Clinton initiates Israeli-Syrian 1999: formal talks in Washington formal May 15-24, 2000: Barak orders final pull-out of Israeli forces from May Lebanon. Hezbollah takes over positions at the border Lebanon. July 11-25, 2000: Clinton invites Barak and Arafat to a summit at July Camp David to boost permanent agreement scheduled for Sept Camp The Downhill Decade 2000-2010 The The extremists on both sides are uneasy with Camp David talks and the Clinton efforts at expediting a permanent solution and Arafat’s dwindling authority among Palestinians and Barak’s Arafat’s unstable coalition prevent both from bold moves. Clinton’s initiative at Camp David culminates in defeat initiative The diplomatic failure further encourages the opposition. Sharon, The Likud’s leader becomes more defiant of Barak’s authority Likud’s September 28th, 2000: Sharon, against specific orders and 2000: warnings, visits the Temple Mount. Violent riots ensue warnings, This is a trigger event for the outburst of the second Intifada, This which is more violent and more brutal than the first which more October 1-9, 2000: riots spread into Israel. Israeli Arab citizens October protest to identify with their brethren in the territories protest 13 Israeli Palestinians are killed from police fire in what becomes 13 to be known as ‘Black October’ to Violence continues and escalates. 2 reserve Israeli soldiers who take a wrong turn are lynched by a mob in Ramallah (10/12/00) take December 10th, 2000: Ehud Barak, only 18 months in office, 2000: resigns in frustration from inability to curb violence resigns In a last attempt to revive the peace process, Clinton pushes for In another round of talks on ‘final status’ before Israeli elections another January 21-27, 2001: the Taba Summit. Barak, as an interim PM January and Arafat try to hammer out an agreement, but the hurried process is shunned by both Israelis and Palestinians process February 6th, 2001: Likud wins Israeli elections. Ariel Sharon 2001: becomes Prime-Minister becomes Sharon refuses to abide by the hitherto peace process agreement Sharon “as long as the Palestinian insurrection continues” “as A pattern of violence emerges and endures: a Palestinian terror attack followed by an Israeli counter-attack. The casualties toll on both sides is appalling on September 11th, 2001: the US is attacked by al-Qaida George W. Bush declares war on the ‘Evil Axis’. Hamas and Hezbollah are included. The Palestinian-Israeli conflict is once again subsumed under another, bigger conflict again March 13, 2002: The UN Resolution 1397 solicited by the US March calling for ‘immediate cessation of all violence’ and affirming a two-state solution two-state This resolution reawakens the dormant diplomatic track and further developments follow: further March 28th, 2002: the Arab peace initiative (or the Saudi Proposal) 2002: in the Beirut Arab summit- Peace and recognition for full Israeli withdrawal and the Palestinian refugee right of return withdrawal March 29th, 2002: on the ground, violence persists and escalates. 2002: Israel strikes back with operation Defensive Shield Israel April-August 2002: Hamas and Islamic Jihad retaliate in a series April-August of horrid suicide bombing attacks in Haifa and Tel Aviv of June 2002: Israel begins building the West Bank Fence. Suicide bombing drops 90% bombing September 12th, 2002: In an effort to resume tranquility, the September 2002: ‘Quartet’- the European Union, United Nations, Russia, and the US propose the Road Map for Peace (Clinton’s idea) US March 19th, 2003: Mahmud Abbas (Abu Maazen) becomes first March 2003: Palestinian PM. Considered practical and reliable by Quartet Palestinian April 30th, 2003: the Road Map plan is publicized. Four stages are 2003: revealed to culminate in an independent Palestinian state revealed May 27th, 2003: Sharon in an unprecedented statement: “the 2003: occupation cannot continue endlessly” occupation August 19th, 2003: Hamas does not share the upswing mood and 2003: initiates another suicide bomb in Tel Aviv with 20 fatalities initiates September 6th, 2003: Abu Maazen resigns in protest against the 2003: extremist organization which prevent a Palestinian State extremist October 16th, 2004: following a Qassam rocket attack from Gaza 2004: into Southern Israel, the IDF launches a broad military strike in Gaza- Operation Days of Penitence GazaNovember 11th, 2004: Yasser Arafat dies. Abu Maazen is called in 2004: to become the new Palestinian president to August 15th- September 12th, 2005: the disengagement plan from 2005: Gaza. The boldest political initiative of Sharon’s government Gaza. Disengagement Aftermath: Further Deterioration Disengagement The Israeli pull-out from Gaza is answered by a barrage of missile attack on The southern Israeli towns. Gaza is in chaos and the extremists rule the streets southern January 26th, 2006: Hamas wins Palestinian elections. The EU stops aid; 2006: defines Hamas as terrorists. The new PM is Ismail Haniya of Hamas defines Hamas rules Gaza and encourages actions against Israel from its territory: Hamas June 25th, 2006- Gilad Shalit is kidnapped June July 12th, 2006: Israel invades Gaza to retrieve Shalit and Hezbollah takes the 2006: opportunity to attack an Israeli patrol on the Lebanese border: 2nd Lebanon opportunity War begins War September 2006: After 9 months of tense and bitter partnership in power, the September Hamas-PLO coalition collapses. Clashes begin in Gaza. After a violent week, Palestinians approach a civil war week, Hamas takes over Gaza. Executes and expels PLO officials. Abu Maazen Hamas nullifies election results in the West Bank. Appoints a PLO PM in RamallahSalim Fiad. The PA is split in two Salim September 2006-June 2007: Gaza is ruled by Hamas who authorizes or September ignores mounting missile attacks on Israel. Israel is provoked to retaliate ignores And retaliate they did: operation Hot Winter February 28th, 2008, and operation 2008, Cast Lead December 2008-January 2009. About 4000 Palestinians and 1200 Israelis are dead in a futile decade of violence 1200 ...
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