8.2+Tempest+2 - The Tempest (1611) Lecture Two: Shakespeare...

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The Tempest (1611) Lecture Two: Shakespeare and the New World
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“New Criticism” and “New Historicism” Two methods for reading texts: 1. New Criticism (invented in 1930s), devoted to understanding literary texts without respect 2. New Historicism: first described in Stephen Greenblatt, ed., The Power of Forms in the English Renaissance (Norman, OK: Pilgrim Books, 1982).
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New Historicist Criticism of The Tempest Criticism: Barbara Fuchs, “Conquering Islands: Contextualizing The Tempest ,” Norton, pp 265-85. P. 266: “By exploring other contexts for the insistent colonial concerns of Shakespeare’s island play, I hope to show how a multiple historical interpretation can unpack the condensed layers of colonialist ideology.”
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New Historicist Criticism of The Tempest Criticism: Barbara Fuchs, “Conquering Islands: Contextualizing The Tempest ,” Norton, pp 265-85. P. 266: “My purpose in this essay is not to refute American readings of The Tempest ; I agree with Peter Hulme that placing New World colonialism at the center of the play has made it a fundamentally more interesting and, at least for twentieth-century readers, a more relevant text.”
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New Criticism and “Close Reading” In literary criticism, close reading is careful subjection of a particular passage of literature to sustained analysis that plays close attention to individual words, syntax, and form. Pioneered by I. A. Richards and later by the New Critics in the mid-twentieth century. Such as John Crowe Ransom, The New Critics (1941)
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Prospero’s Books and Shakespeare’s Books Michel de Montaigne, The Essays , translated by John Florio (London: V. Sims for E. Blount, 1603), pp. 101-2, 104, 106-7.
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p. 27: 2.1.143: COURT TRANSPLANTED: Gonzalo, “Honest Old Councellor” comforts King Alonzo GONZALO : I' the commonwealth I would by contraries Execute all things; for no kind of traffic Would I admit; no name of magistrate; Letters should not be known; riches, poverty, And use of service, none; contract, succession, Bourn, bound of land, tilth, vineyard, none;
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p. 108: Montaigne, “Cannibals of Brizil” Translated into English in 1603. I am sometimes grieved the knowledge of [the new world peoples] came no sooner to light, at what time there were men, that better than we could have judged of it. I am sorry, Lycurgus and Plato had it not: For me seemeth that what in those nations we see by experience, doth not only exceed all the pictures wherewith licentious Poesie hath proudly imbellished the golden age, and all her quaint inventions to fain a happy condition of man, but also the conception and desire of Philosophy.
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It is a nation, would I answer Plato, that hath no kind of traffic, no knowledge of letters, no intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, nor of politic superiority; no use of service, of riches or of povertie; no contracts, no successions, no partitions, no occupation but idle. America = Utopia superior to Plato’s Republic
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This note was uploaded on 11/12/2011 for the course ENGLISH 350:323 taught by Professor Fulton during the Spring '11 term at Rutgers.

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8.2+Tempest+2 - The Tempest (1611) Lecture Two: Shakespeare...

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