Zionism+4-+Herzl - Theodore Herzl: the Founder of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Theodore Herzl: the Founder of the Zionist Movement Theodore Born in Budapest, Hungary in 1860 to a Middle class family. His upbringing was Secular, with class affinity to German culture and language. Got a Law degree from U. of Vienna and became a Respectable journalist and essayist. His youth And early adulthood were set in an integrationist And Environment and relatively calm assimilation. The ChangeIn the university, he joined the German national fraternity Albia stressing German Unity (Motto: Ehre, Freiheit, Vaterland Ehre, (Honor, Freedom, Fatherland). Herzl encounters antiSemitism for the first time. He is deeply hurt, as the most active member. member. for Karl Lueger, an anti-Semitic demagogue, the new Mayor of Vienna 1895 The Dreyfus Affair (1894-1895): Herzl covers the story as a senior The reporter of the distinguished Viennese newspaper Neue Freie Presse. reporter The New Ghetto: a play, 1895: the futility of emancipation. The The Jewish State (Der Judenstaat) (February 1896) (February The • • • • The problem of the Jews is that they would never be accepted by the The gentile societies. Emancipation is an illusion, assimilation- a hoax. gentile This anomaly is long-lasting and omnipresent: “perhaps we could This long-lasting omnipresent “perhaps succeed in merging with the peoples surrounding us if we were only left in peace for two generations, but they will not leave us in peace”. “The Jewish question persists wherever Jews live in appreciable numbers. Where it doesn’t, it is brought in with Jewish immigration”. numbers. The modern reason for anti-Semitism is economic and political: the The fear of Jewish competition and empowerment following human rights. But those rights are not cancelled due to the concern that Jews would be driven en-masse to the ranks of the revolutionaries. (Herzl analyzes anti-Semitism in a rational, scientific and cold scrutiny). analyzes Hence, his solution is similarly logical: gentile hatred unifies the Jews Hence, and precipitates their redemption:” We are a people, one people. Our enemies made us one without their volition. Affliction makes us stand together”. From this flows the explanation: “Our problem is neither social nor religious but a national one. To solve it we must establish it national as an international issue for civilized nations to settle in council. international civilized in Selected Excerpts from The Jewish State: Selected The idea which I have developed in this pamphlet is a very The old one: it is the restoration of the Jewish State. The world resounds with outcries against the Jews, and The these outcries have awakened the slumbering idea. these We are a people-one people. We have honestly endeavored everywhere to merge We ourselves in the social life of surrounding communities and to preserve the faith of our fathers. We are not permitted to do so. In vain are we loyal patriots, our loyalty in some places running to extremes; in vain do we make the same sacrifices of life and property as our fellow-citizens; in vain do we strive to increase the fame of our native land in science and art, or her wealth by trade and commerce. science In countries where we have lived for centuries we are still In cried down as strangers, and often by those whose ancestors were not yet domiciled in the land where Jews had already had experience of suffering. The majority may decide which are the strangers; for this, as indeed every point which arises in the relations between nations, is a question of might. If we could only be left in peace.... we oppression and persecution cannot exterminate us. No oppression nation on earth has survived such struggles and sufferings as we have gone through. Jew-baiting has merely stripped off our weaklings; the strong among us were invariably true to their race when persecution broke out against them.... their However much I may worship personality-powerful individual However personality in statesmen, inventors, artists, philosophers, or leaders, as well as the collective personality of a historic group of human beings, which we call a nation-however much I may worship personality, I do not regret its disappearance. Whoever can, will, and must perish, let him perish. But the distinctive nationality of Jews neither can, will, nor must be destroyed. It cannot be destroyed, because extenal enemies consolidate it. It will not be destroyed; this is shown during 2000 years of appalling suffering. It must not be destroyed .... Whole branches of Judaism may wither and fall, but the trunk will remain. branches No one can deny the gravity of the situation of the Jews. Wherever No they live in perceptible numbers, they are more or less persecuted. Their equality before the law, granted by statute, has become practically a dead letter. They are debarred from filling even moderately high positions, either in the army, or in any public or private capacity. And attempts are made to thrust them out of business also: "Don't buy from Jews!" also: Let the sovereignty be granted us over a portion of the globe large Let enough to satisfy the rightful requirements of a nation; the rest we shall manage for ourselves. shall The creation of a new State is neither ridiculous nor impossible. We The have in our day witnessed the process in connection with nations which were not largely members of the middle class, but poorer, less educated, and consequently weaker than ourselves. The Governments of all countries scourged by Anti-Semitism will be keenly interested in assisting us to obtain the sovereignty we want. in The plan, simple in design, but complicated in execution, will be The carried out by two agencies: The Society of Jews and the Jewish Company. The Society of Jews will do the preparatory work in the domains of science and politics, which the Jewish Company will afterwards apply practically. The Jewish Company will be the liquidating agent of the business interests of departing Jews, and will organize commerce and trade in the new country. organize We must not imagine the departure of the Jews to be a sudden one. It We will be gradual, continuous, and will cover many decades. The poorest will go first to cultivate the soil. In accordance with a preconceived plan, they will construct roads, bridges, railways and telegraph installations; regulate rivers; and build their own dwellings; their labor will create trade, trade will create markets and markets will attract new settlers, for every man will go voluntarily, at his own expense and his own risk. The labor expended on the land will enhance its value, and the Jews will soon perceive that a new and permanent sphere of operation is opening here for that spirit of enterprise which has heretofore met only with hatred. enterprise Politics must take shape in the upper strata and work downwards. But Politics no member of the Jewish State will be oppressed, every man will be able and will wish to rise in it. Thus a great upward tendency will pass through our people; every individual by trying to raise himself, raising also the whole body of citizens. The ascent will take a normal form, useful to the State and serviceable to the National Idea. useful One of the great commissions which the Society will have to appoint One will be the council of State jurists. These must formulate the best modern constitution possible. I believe that a good constitution should be of moderately elastic nature. I think a democratic monarchy and an aristocratic republic are the finest forms of a State, because in them the form of State and the principle of government are opposed to each other, and thus preserve a true balance of power. I am a staunch supporter of monarchial institutions, because these allow a continuous policy, and represent the interests of a historically famous family born and educated to rule, whose desires are bound up with preserving the State. But our history has been too long interrupted for us to attempt direct continuity of ancient constitutional forms, without exposing ourselves to the charge of absurdity. ourselves A democracy without a sovereign's useful counterpoise is extreme in democracy appreciation and condemnation, tends to idle discussion in Parliaments, and produces that objectionable class of men -professional politicians. Nations are also really not fit for unlimited democracy at present, and will become less and less fitted for it in the future. For a pure democracy presupposes a predominance of simple customs, and our customs become daily more complex with the I do not believe in our political virtue; first, because we are no better do than the rest of modern humanity; and, secondly, because freedom will make us show our fighting qualities at first. I also hold a settling of questions by the referendum to be an unsatisfactory procedure, because there are no simple political questions which can be answered merely by Yes and No. The masses are also more prone even than Parliaments to be led away by heterodox opinions, and to be swayed by vigorous ranting. It is impossible to formulate a wise internal or external policy in a popular assembly. external Shall we end by having a theocracy? No, indeed. Faith unites us, knowledge gives us freedom. We shall therefore prevent any theocratic tendencies from coming to the fore on the part of our priesthood. We shall keep our priests within the confines of their temples in the same way as we shall keep our professional army within the confines of their barracks. Army and priesthood shall receive honors high as their valuable functions deserve. But they must not interfere in the administration of the State which confers distinction upon them, else they will conjure up difficulties without and within. and Every man will be as free and undisturbed in his faith or his disbelief Every as he is in his nationality. And if it should occur that men of other creeds and different nationalities come to live amongst us, we should accord them honorable protection and equality before the law. We have learnt toleration in Europe. This is not sarcastically said; for the Anti-Semitism of today could only in a very few places be taken for old religious intolerance. It is for the most part a movement among civilized nations by which they try to chase away the spectres of their own past. own When the idea of a State begins to approach realization, the Society of When Jews will appoint a council of jurists to do the preparatory work of legislation. During the transition period these must act on the principle that every emigrant Jew is to be judged according to the laws of the country which he has left. But they must try to bring about a unification of these various laws to form a modern system of legislation based on the best portions of previous systems. This might become a typical codification, embodying all the just social claims of the present day. the Here it is, fellow Jews! Neither fable nor deception! Every man may Here test its reality for himself, for every man will carry over with him a portion of the Promised Land -- one in his head, another in his arms, another in his acquired possessions. Now, all this may appear to be an interminably long affair. Even in the most favorable circumstances, many years might elapse before the commencement of the foundation of the State. In the meantime, Jews in a thousand different places would suffer insults, mortifications, abuse, blows, depredation, and death. No; if we only begin to carry out the plans, Anti-Semitism would stop at once and for ever. For it is the conclusion of peace. would Prayers will be offered up for the success of our work in temples and Prayers in churches also; for it will bring relief from an old burden, which all have suffered. But we must first bring enlightenment to men's minds. The idea must make its way into the mast distant, miserable holes where our people dwell. They will awaken from gloomy brooding, for into their lives will come a new significance. Every man need think only of himself, and the movement will assume vast proportions. And what glory awaits those who fight unselfishly for the cause! And Therefore I believe that a wondrous generation of Jews will spring into existence. The Maccabeans will rise again. The Jews who wish for a State will have it. We shall live at last as free men on our own soil, and die peacefully in our own homes. The world will be freed by Herzl’s Ascendancy to the Zionist leadership Herzl’s The Meeting with Hechler- In March 10, 1896, William Hechler the Anglican minister for the British Embassy in Vienna and a devout Evangelist. Herzl recognizes the potential in his visitor’s contacts and asks him a favor: potential “I must put myself into direct and publicly known relations must with a responsible or non responsible ruler – that is, with a minister of state or a prince. Then the Jews will believe in me and follow me. The most suitable personage would be the German Kaiser.“ the Hechler grants him his wish and arranges the meeting, first Hechler with Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden (April 1896), the (April Kaiser’s uncle, and then with Kaiser Wilhelm himself (1898). The meetings gave Herzl the legitimacy and respectability he sought but nothing concrete regarding the Zionist plan. he The same pattern of using personal contact through mediators to the power wielders returned a year later when Count to when Philip Nevlenski, a sympathetic Polish émigré with contacts in the Ottoman Court, introduced Herzl to the Grand Vizier and later to Sultan Abdulhamid himself. Herzl’s reputation as a world leader peaked as well as the Jews’ admiration. as En route back from Constantinople, Herzl received a formal En invitation to London where he addressed a mass rally of thousands, July 12, 1896. He was received with acclaim. The strong Jewish community of London granted Herzl the mandate of leadership for Zionism. Within six months this mandate had been expanded throughout Zionist Jewry. The Zionist movement continued growing very rapidly. Zionist In August 1897 Herzl convened the first world Zionist In congress in Basel Switzerland where he was elected president before hundreds of cheering delegates. president In 1898 Herzl makes his only visit to Palestine and is welcomed as king by the Jewish population. He meets the German Kaiser again and is greeted by Ottoman dignitaries. German In 1902–03 Herzl was invited to give evidence before the In British Royal Commission on Immigration. The appearance brought him into close contact with members of the British government, particularly with Joseph Chamberlain, then secretary of state for the colonies. secretary Herzl is invited to attend The Hague Peace Conference where Herzl he enjoyed a warm reception by many other statesmen and recognized as a fellow world leader. recognized By the time of his death on July 3rd, 1904 Herzl had become an 1904 icon, a larger than life symbol and was crowned the savior of the Jewish people or even the New Messiah. of ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/12/2011 for the course MIDDLE EAS 563 taught by Professor Peleg during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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