Unformatted text preview: Catharsis
The idea that observing of engaging in aggression relieves pent up aggressive tendencies, and thus makes one less likely to aggress Most people believe that catharsis reduces aggressive tendencies
– Therapists have clients hit pillows to vent their anger – People report that it works and that it is calming Ebbeson’s study
Workers laidoff OR voluntarily left their job Exit interview –
– Verbalized hostility toward supervisor Or
Talked about neutral aspects of the job DV: Completed evaluation of supervisor Ebbeson’s study
25 Aggre s sion 20
15 Column 1
Column 2 10
Angry Not Angry Bushman’s research
Bushman’s research 600 college Ps
– All angered by another participant who criticized their essay
IV: – Rumination (hit punching bag think about other participant)
– Distraction (hit punching bag think about physical fitness)
– Control group (no punching bag) DVs: – Aggression (blast provocateur with loud long noises)
– Anger (mood measure) Bushman’s research
Bushman’s research Catharsis theory prediction: Venting participants less aggressive
Results did not support catharsis hypothesis Participants in the rumination condition were the most angry and aggressive. Why doesn’t catharsis work?
Why doesn’t catharsis work?
Watching violence on TV, or acting aggressively, “teaches” us how to aggress (social learning theory)
2. Observing aggression increases arousal, and hence the likelihood to behave aggressively.
3. If aggressing feels good, that reward makes it more likely that aggression will happen again in the future
1. How do we find the answers?
How do we find the answers? Correlational, Longitudinal, Experimental studies
– Presents a picture of the overall pattern of results across studies
– Multiple metaanalyses support the hypothesis that exposure to violent TV and video games increases the risk of subsequent aggressive/antisocial behavior
– Anderson et al., 2010 metaanalysis: across multiple countries, over 130,000 participants
– Violent video games = higher: aggressive behaviors, affect (emotions), arousal, desensitization, and less prosocial behavior
– Effects for experimental, correlational, and longitudinal studies and for boys and girls. Correlational studies
Correlational studies Consistently find that the more violent TV a child watches, the more aggressive the child tends to be. – Get in more fights, have more arguments with teachers, greater hostile attribution bias This relationship remains even when pulling out the influence of other variables (e.g., intelligence, family characteristics) Among college students, playing violent video games is related to aggressive and delinquent behavior.
• r = .46!! (quite high) But what if the direction is reversed? Longitudinal Studies
Longitudinal Studies Violent TV watching predicts later aggression, but aggression does not predict later violent TV watching. – Measured both aggressiveness and TV watching at ages 8 and 19
– TV at 8 predicted aggressiveness at 19
– Aggressiveness at 8 did NOT predict TV at 19 2008 Study: 364 American children ages 912 and 1,200 children ages of 1218 from Japan
– Gigh levels of violent video games play early in school something something Experimental Studies
Experimental Studies Children watched a violent or nonviolent TV program Then played a game of floor hockey Kids who saw the violent program were more aggressive during the game Experimental Studies
Experimental Studies Similar findings with many studies on college students – Those who play a violent video game increase their aggressive thoughts and behaviors eg noise blasts.
– Leads to physiological desensitization Anderson & Dill Study 2: Experiment
• College students randomly assigned to play a video game 3 times over a week
• Wolfenstein 3D: violent game
• Myst: nonviolent game • DV: Level/duration of noise blast given to opponent after losing a game in the lab. Duration of Noise After
Losing Results of Study 2
Video Game Played Violent Why does violent media increase Why does violent media increase aggression? Shortterm (due to limited exposure to violence)
– Imitation (learning) – Weakens inhibitions– the more you see violence, less inhibited you are to behave that way. – Increases arousal
– Priming– think more about acting in an aggressive manner. Why does violent media increase Why does violent media increase aggression? Longterm (due to repeated exposure to violence)
– Expectations– except aggression and hostile – Scripts– learn aggressive behavior sequences. – Attitudes/beliefs– become more proviolence. More accepting of violent tendencies. – Desensitization– less arousal after seeing aggression Physiological Desensitization
Physiological Desensitization 257 college students Played a violent or nonviolent video game Watched scenes of reallife violence Results: Those who played the violent game had lower levels of heart rate and galvanic skin response. Why might Video Game Violence have Why might Video Game Violence have an even larger effect than other media?
1. Identification with aggressor increases imitation of the aggressor
2. Active participation increases learning
3. Rehearsing an entire behavioral sequence is more effective than rehearsing only a part of it
4. Violence is continuous 5. Repetition increase learning
6. Rewards increase learning Pornography and sexual violence
Pornography and sexual violence
– Distorts perceptions and desensitizes – more acceptance of sexual violence (especially if it shows sexual aggression as pleasurable for the victim) – Donnerstein & Berkowitz (1982) Males watched: rape, erotic, or nonerotic violent film Teacherlearner shock paradigm Rape film = highest level of shocks to female
– Mullin & Linz (1995) Male viewers exposed to sexually violent movies Later expressed less sympathy for DV victims, and rated
victims’ injuries as less severe. How Strong is the Relationship Between How Strong is the Relationship Between Media Violence and RealWorld Aggression? From Dorothy G. Singer and Jerome L. Singer (eds.), Handbook of Children and the Media.
Copyright © by Sage Publications, Inc. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications, Inc. Variety of Prejudice Race, Gender, Religion, Ethinicity, Age– common topics of study for prejudice BUT Any group can be target of prejudice Political Groups, Colleges, Fraternities, Trekkies, Freshman etc. ABC’s Stereotypes = Cognitions, Beliefs – Cognitive Prejudice =Affect, Attitude Affective Discrimination =Behavior
Behavioral Often cooccur, but NOT always Definition Prejudice =a hostile/negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people based solely on their membership in that group. Attitudinal and affective component Prejudice and Selfesteem Clark and Clark (1947) demonstrated that African American children as young as 3 thought it was not particularly desirable to be black. Children were offered a choice between playing with a white doll and playing with a black doll. The majority rejected the black doll, feeling that the white doll was prettier and superior. Taking this evidence into consideration, the Supreme Court ruled that separating black children from white children on the basis of race alone “generates a feeling of inferiority." ...
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- Fall '11
- SAGE Publications, experimental studies, violent media increase