Attitudes Social Psych 2011-Day1class

Attitudes Social Psych 2011-Day1class - Attitudes &...

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Unformatted text preview: Attitudes & Attitudes Persuasion The attitude is the most distinctive and important concept in contemporary American social psychologyGordon Allport Attitude Formation Attitude Evaluation of a person, object, or idea. Can be positive, negative, neutral, or Can ambivalent ambivalent Ambivalent = both positive & negative Ex: gun control Negative – dangerous Positive – right to bear arms ABC’s of Attitudes (based on 3 based ABC’s components) components) Tripartite model Attitude Component Component Component 3 Attitude Components Attitude Affective: a positive or negative feeling positive about the attitude object (emotional) about Behavioral: behavioral reaction to attitude behavioral object object Approach vs. avoid Cognitive: a cognitive representation that cognitive summarizes one’s evaluation of the attitude object (thoughts & beliefs) attitude EXAMPLE EXAMPLE Guns Scare Me Affective Attitude on Gun Control Behavioral Cognitive Make me feel safe I vote for/against gun control Guns can lead to the death of a child/Guns have helped protect lives and properties Affect Affect Attitude based on emotion Reaction to maggots, island, political candidates Peoples values, such as religious and moral Peoples beliefs Sensory reaction, such as liking the taste of Sensory chocolate chocolate Conditioning Assumption that attitudes are learned Assumption dispositions dispositions Classical Conditioning Classical Learning by association Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) A stimulus that elicits a reflexive response Unconditioned response (UCR) An unlearned response to a UCS (the An reflexive response) reflexive Neutral stimulus (NS) A stimulus that in itself produces no stimulus response response Classical conditioning Classical Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A NS that elicits a conditioned response NS through association with an UCS. through Conditioned Response (CR) A llearned response to a previously earned neutral stimulus neutral Pavlov’s Study Pavlov’s Study Pavlov’s study: Before conditioning Before NS UCS No response UCR Pavlov’s study: Conditioning NS UCS UCR Pavlov’s study: After conditioning CS CR Classical conditioning application application 1) A student survives a plane crash that occurred because of a thunderstorm. Now, whenever the student hears thunder, he gets anxious/fearful. student 2) As child, you experienced feelings of love when you visited your grandparents. Suppose every time you went to visit, they were baking homemade cookies. Now, whenever you smell homemade cookies, you experience a feeling of love & warmth. love What are the UCS, UCR, CS (NS), CR Attitude conditioning Attitude Berkowitz and Knurek (1969) Berkowitz Created favourable and unfavourable Created attitudes to the names Ed and George by repeatedly presenting the names with paired positive and negative adjectives adjectives Then each participant talked with two Then people introduced as Ed and George George Participants ratings refelcted the previous Participants conditioning. Principles of operant conditioning conditioning In operant conditioning, behaviors we In operant freely perform become more or less frequent, depending on whether they are followed by a reward (positive reinforcement) or punishment. reinforcement) Reinforcement increases the likelihood of a Reinforcement behavior or attitude behavior Punishment decreases the likelihood of Punishment emitting a behavior. emitting Operant Conditioning Operant Hildum and Brown (1956) interviewed Hildum students about their attitudes to university policies policies For some, favourable responses were For reinforced (with the interviewer answering good or mm-hmm) mm-hmm) For others the unfavourable responses were For reinforced reinforced Students attitudes afterwards reflected the Students response that had been reinforced. Attitudes became stronger one way or Attitudes another. Why are Attitudes Important? Why Strongly influence social thought the way Strongly we think about and process social information. information. Example of reading a newspaper article Assumed that attitudes influence behavior What is your attitude about being honest? Most people have a positive attitude about Most being honest being But does this guide behavior? History of Attitude Behavior LaPiere (1934) Visited 66 hotels & 184 restaurants across the Visited U.S. with a Chinese couple U.S. Chinese couple only denied service once 6 months later wrote to establishments months (Would you provide service to Chinese?) (Would 128 responded, 92% no service Problems. 6 months after behavior, chinese Problems. might have been dressed nicely, he was w/couple, responder might not be service giver giver When do attitudes predict? When When attitude is strong: When Attitude is important Attitude is strongly supported (beliefs, affect, Attitude behavior) behavior) When social and situational pressures are When weak weak Attitude comes to mind=accesible When do attitudes predict behavior? When Attitude & behavioral measures Attitude correspond correspond General, global attitudes predict behavior General, across a variety of contexts across Specific attitudes predict specific behaviors. Recycling. Recycling. Attitude-behavior correspondence correspondence Attitudinal variable r Attitude toward birth control .08 Attitude toward birth control pills .32 Attitude toward using birth control Attitude pills pills Attitude toward using birth control Attitude pills during the next 2 years pills .53 .57 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2011 for the course PSYC 2012 taught by Professor Michellestock during the Fall '11 term at GWU.

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