Group processes 2011-day2class

Group processes 2011-day2class - Social Facilitation or...

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Unformatted text preview: Social Facilitation or Social Loafing? Making Decisions: Polarization Common belief: a benefit of groups is that everyone hears different opinions This should lead to moderate decisions (compromises) Making Decisions: Polarization Wallach et al. (1962) used the chess problem Results: Making Decisions: Polarization But, later study used Roger problem Found that groups became more Group Polarization: tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its memberes. Strengtheing average tendency Group Polarization Group polarization in the real world All boy playgroups vs. all girl playgroups Voting records of all republican (or all democratic) judicial panels vs. mixed panels Religious forums/chat rooms on the internet Terrorist groups Making Decisions: Polarization Why does it happen? “Persuasive arguments” expose to additional arguments in favor of decision. “Social comparison” want to be liked; other’s support your position = voice opinion more strongly. a.k.a., Normative vs. Informational influence Making Decisions: Polarization Only works if group members all Only generally agree at first (risky or cautious) generally Cultural effects Cultural US tends to be riskier that Africa. US Groupthink A kind of thinking in which maintaining group kind cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner. Groupthink Examples The Titanic “God himself could not sink this ship” –Capt. Edward Smith Pearl Harbor The Challenger Explosion “[If the ship launched]…it would be a catastrophe of the highest order.” ­­NASA Engineer Bay of Pigs Invasion “How could we have been so stupid?” ­­John F. Kennedy Making Decisions: Groupthink When will groupthink occur? Group is highly cohesive. Like each other, important to identity, Like valued valued The more cohesive a group is, the The more its members are likely to: more Stay in the group, Take part in group activities, and Try to recruit new like-minded members. Making Decisions: Groupthink When will groupthink occur? Group is isolated Group is understress There is a directive controlling leader No standard procedures for decision No making making Group consists of like minded Group individuals individuals Symptoms of groupthink Overestimation of the group Display an illusion of invulnerability Display Feel they can do no wrong Do not question the groups morality (ignore actions, believe they are morally (ignore correct) correct) Self-censorship Withhold opposing views for group Withhold harmony harmony Symptoms of groupthink Stereotyping out group Stereotyping Views them negatively with simplistic Views views views Pressures toward uniformity Pressure to conform to group (Asch Pressure study) study) This results in an illusion of unanimity. Mindguards Protect leader from contrary Preventing groupthink Be impartial Do not endorse any position to begin with Seek anonymous opinions Encourage critical evaluation Devil’s Advocate Subdivide the group and reunite to air differences Welcome critiques from outside experts Call a second-chance meeting to air lingering doubts Escalation Effects Condition in which commitments of a Condition failing course of action are increased to justify investments already made. justify Can be very costly to a group Groups are more likely to escalate Groups commitment to a failing project & to do so in extreme ways do Conflict vs. Cooperation What happens when people in a group have conflicting goals? Social dilemma: conflict in which the most beneficial actions for an individual will, if chosen by everyone, harm everyone. Social Dilemmas Prisoner’s Dilemma: in this game, 2 people have to choose one of two options w/o knowing what the other person will choose. Your payoff—the amount of money you win or lose—depends on the choices of both you and your friend. For instance, if both you and your friend choose option X, you both win $3. If, however, you choose option Y and your friend chooses option X, you win $6 and your friend loses $6. Conflict vs. Cooperation “The Prisoner’s Dilemma” Two people are being interrogated by the police as suspects of a crime (which they did commit together). Each suspect is interrogated in a separate room. If neither suspect “cracks,” there will be no evidence and they will both go free. If both suspects crack, they’ll both go to jail for 5 years. If only 1 cracks, he’ll get a “deal” ( 1 year), but the other will get 10 years for not cooperating. Conflict vs. Cooperation Person A: Person crack crack crack crack silent 5 5 10 1 Person B 1 silent silent 10 0 0 Conflict vs. Cooperation So, the question is: how much do you trust your partner?? Direct competition version…will you cooperate with your partner, or compete for resources? Conflict vs. Cooperation Person A (opponent): Person compete cooperate compete compete compete 1 1 5 0 Person B (You) cooperate cooperate 0 5 3 3 Conflict vs. Cooperation Real life: buildup of military arms How much do you trust the other country? Best strategy? “Tit for tat” ...
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