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Prejudice & Stereotypes 2011-Day 1-class

Prejudice & Stereotypes 2011-Day 1-class - What...

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Unformatted text preview: What contributes to prejudice/stereotypes/disc? prejudice/stereotypes/disc? Learning/Socialization Evolutionary psychology: prejudice may be Evolutionary the result of a tendency to favor genetically similar individuals (survival mechanism) Most social psychologists: prejudice is learned Children pick up on their parents’ attitudes Media messages Do these attitudes persist into adulthood? What contributes to prejudice/stereotypes/disc? prejudice/stereotypes/disc? Competition Realistic conflict theory = limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in prejudice/discrimination. Relative deprivation = feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared to others. Ex. Mexican American migrant workers Caucasians (jobs) Arabs and Israelis (territory) Stereotypes of Chinese Americans Americans Depraved, vicious, Depraved, inhuman inhuman Industrious, lawabiding, trustworthy Gold rush Gold (competitive) (competitive) Conniving, crafty, Conniving, criminal criminal Transcontinental Transcontinental railroad (needed) End of Civil War End (increased competition for jobs) competition What contributes to prejudice/stereotypes/disc? prejudice/stereotypes/disc? Scapegoating = tendency for people (when frustrated or unhappy) to displace aggression onto disliked, visible, and relatively powerless groups. relatively No logical competitor exists Blame falls on a less powerful out-group Example: Nazis treatment of Jews What contributes to prejudice/stereotypes/disc? prejudice/stereotypes/disc? Institutionalized prejudice = prejudicial attitudes that are held by the majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm norm Can be blatant (e.g., racial segregation) or Can more subtle (e.g., “flesh” colored crayon) more What contributes to prejudice/stereotypes/disc? prejudice/stereotypes/disc? Normative conformity = people adopt prejudicial attitude and discriminatory behavior to go along with the group and gain acceptance Illustrated by changing social norms What contributes to prejudice/stereotypes/disc? prejudice/stereotypes/disc? Motivational needs Self-esteem/status/belonging In-group In-group bias and self-esteem protection. What contributes to prejudice/stereotypes/disc? prejudice/stereotypes/disc? Motivational needs Need for control Just-world theory/blaming the victim = slight tendency to believe that the world is just, so people get what they deserve and deserve what they get deserve People don’t want to think their fate is People dependent on chance factors. dependent Thus we blame the victim. Using stable Thus Stereotypes Stereotypes Definition = a generalization about a Definition group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of a group (regardless of actual variation among the members) actual Cognitive component Examples: New Yorkers, dumb blondes, Examples: jocks jocks Stereotypes Stereotypes How are stereotypes learned? Social Learning – Family, friends, media Main route Prejudice also can be automatically Prejudice activated – may influence behavior. May act upon stereotype May Stereotypes Stereotypes Not necessarily negative Can be inaccurate, accurate, or partly Can accurate. accurate. Problem is overgeneralization Problem Not accurate for all people in that group Denies people their individuality Automatic and Controlled Processing of Stereotypes Processing An automatic process is one over which An we have no control. we Stereotypes are automatically triggered Stereotypes under certain conditions—they just pop into one’s mind. Since the process is automatic, you can’t Since control it or stop it from occurring. control However, for people who are not deeply However, prejudiced, their control processes can suppress or override these stereotypes. How do stereotypes form? How Social categorization = tendency to mentally sort things/people into groups mentally makes the world easier to think about makes (cognitive miser) (cognitive automatic Video: Eye of the Storm How does the superior group react? How does the inferior group react? Look for instances when the children Look spontaneously discriminate/hold prejudicial attitudes. attitudes. What stereotypes does the teacher What introduce? introduce? Social Identity and Activation Theories Theories What stereotypes activate MAY depend What on category chosen on If person becomes member of in-group, If may change stereotypes may Consequence of social categorization categorization Social Identity Theory We categorize ourselves and others into groups. In-groups vs. out-groups: we sort the world into In-groups groups that we belong to and groups that we do not belong to. Examples: country, religion, school, brown/blue eyes Examples: video video Why? – Self-esteem Group Self-Serving Bias Ingroup= postive things are disponsitional, negative are Ingroup= situational In-group Bias In-group Positive feelings and special treatment for Positive people we have defined as being part of our in-group our Negative feelings and unfair treatment for Negative others simply because we have defined them as being in the out-group. them Even Even when groups assigned randomly and we know it is random. we Football victories: “we won” Football How do stereotypes form? How Leads to Out-group Homogeneity Perception that out-group members are more similar to Perception each other than are in-group members (“they” are all alike, “we” are different) alike, We have more contact with our in-groups We across different situations and contexts across Individuals enhance their self-esteem by identifying Individuals with specific social groups Self-esteem is enhanced if the individual sees Self-esteem their group as superior to other groups. Ingroups vs. Outgroups Ingroups Robber’s Cave study (Sherif, 1961) Boys at camp were divided into two groups – Boys the “Rattlers” and the “Eagles” Competed against each other for prizes in Competed various activities various Result: fierce and vicious hostility between Result: the groups. the Each group displayed an in-group bias and Each the out-group homogeneity effect. the ...
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