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Ch10.1&Ch12Genetics - Genetics Genetics The Study...

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Unformatted text preview: Genetics Genetics The Study of Inherited The Characteristics Characteristics Ch 10.1 and Ch12 Meiosis in the Gonads Meiosis makes gametes: Sperm Meiotic cell division Egg Chromosome Chromosome DNA Code for traits Gene Gene Segments of Segments DNA Code for a Code trait trait Hair Color Eye Color Gene Segment For Hair color Trait Trait Characteristic Feature Variations in Variations a population population Dominant Trait Dominant “Dominates” Shows in the Shows outward appearance appearance Even when Even recessive trait is present present Bb BB or Bb Recessive Trait Recessive Albinism bb “hidden” May be May masked by a dominant trait trait Bb Alleles Alleles Letters of the Letters alphabet alphabet Code for a Code trait trait One from One father father One from One mother mother Dominant Allele: Allele: Recessive Recessive Allele: Allele: Upper case Upper Lower case Lower letter of the alphabet alphabet Codes for Codes dominant traits traits letter of the alphabet alphabet Codes for Codes recessive traits traits Chromosomes in Nucleus Chromosomes Gene Segments For a Trait= “A” or “a” Monohybrid Cross Monohybrid Cross for Cross one trait one Example: Hair color Bb B BB Bb B BB Bb Punnet Square F1 Generation F1 Genetic Genetic Cross= Cross= Mating F1= Children Children 1st “filial” generation generation Parents Bb B B BB Bb BB Bb 2 Filial Generation- F2 F2 nd Children of the cross between the children of an F1 F1 “Incest” Incest” among F1 among Only after Only pure x pure pure F1= B b Bb Bb b B Bb Bb F2= B b Bb BB Bb Bb bb Phenotype Phenotype Outward Outward appearance appearance Trait that is Trait shown shown Bb looks brown Bb looks (has “b” =white allele) allele) Genotype Genotype Allele set True genetic True makeup of makeup the chromosome chromosome Bb Homozygous: Heterozygous: Homozygous: Pure Hybrid Pure Hybrid condition condition condition condition 2 same case 2 different case same different alleles alleles alleles alleles BB= Bb appears dominant dominant dominant dominant bb= recessive Mendelian Genetics Review: Mendelian See Encarta CD-ROM Dihybrid Cross Dihybrid Cross with two traits parents two Example: 1. Hair Color 2. Eye Color 2 types of types alleles alleles Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Children Codominance Codominance “Incomplete” Incomplete” dominance dominance Hybrid is a blend of traits traits Example: RR=red Rr=pink rr=white Pink Carnation Multiple Alleles Multiple More than More one type of allele for a trait trait Example: Blood Type TYPES: A B AB AB O I I ,I i BB B I I ,I i AB II ii ii AA A X-Linked Traits X-Linked Sex-linked Trait in on the sex Trait chromosome chromosome XX= XX Female Female XY XY Male Ex:Red & white Ex:Red eyes eyes Female= XX Add eye trait= XRXR or XRXr XrXr Male= XY Add eye trait= XRY or XrY “Y” is empty Karyotype Karyotype Chromosome Number Chromosome Different # for different Different Homologous species species Chromosomes Full set = 2N=Diploid aN= re the sets of e # pairs ach pair 1 pair from mother 1 pair from father Humans= 23 pairs or Humans= 23 46 total Autosomes & Sex Chromosomes Autosomes Autosomes = # 122 for all traits except sex Sex chromosomes= Pair # 23 XX(female) or XY(male) Down Syndrome= 3 of #21 Down Klinefelter’s = XXY Klinefelter’s Pedigree Charts Pedigree Male = Female= Sexual Union= Offspring= Pedigree Chart -Cystic Fibrosis Pedigree Mutation Mutation 1. 2. 3. 4. Change in DNA code code Caused by: Chemical damage Errors in Errors Replication Replication X-ray damage UV damage A T G C A to A G C Mutation Mutation Changes in Changes the DNA code = Changes in Changes the final proteins made proteins =Changes in =Changes the organism the ...
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