12GeneticsHealthSciencePowerPoint

12GeneticsHealthSciencePowerPoint - Genetics &the...

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Genetics  Health Sciences Lecture 12
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Genome - Complete complement of  an organism’s DNA  (all of the chromosomes). Chromosomes - carry genes  (a  chromosome is one molecule of DNA). Gene  –  “unit of heredity” made of  segments of DNA.
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Mendelian  Genetics  Simple  Inhertiance
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So who’s Mendel? Once upon a time (1860's), in an Austrian monastery, there lived a monk named Gregor Mendel. Monks had a lot of time on their hands, and Mendel spent his time breeding pea plants. As he did this over & over & over again, he noticed a patterns to the inheritance of traits from one set of pea plants to the next. By carefully analyzing his pea plant numbers, he discovered three laws of inheritance. Mendel's Laws are as follows : 1. the Law of Dominance 2. the Law of Segregation 3. the Law of Independent Assortment In his work, the words "chromosomes" or "genes" are nowhere to be found. The role of these things in relation to inheritance & heredity had not been discovered yet. What makes Mendel's contributions so impressive is that he described the basic patterns of inheritance before the mechanism for inheritance (namely genes) was even discovered .
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Genetic vocabulary… __________:  the genes of an organism  ( all your genes) __________:   an organism’s traits  (expression of your genes) ________:  variations of a gene  Represented with letters for the different  types of alleles (PP, Pp, pp) __________:   pair of identical alleles  for a character (PP, pp) __________:   two different alleles for  a gene (Pp) Terminology
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Mendelian Genetics Terms Character (heritable feature, i.e., fur color) Trait   (va ria nt fo r a  c ha ra c te r, i.e . bro wn) True-bred   (all offspring of same variety) Hybridization (c ro s s ing  o f 2 diffe re nt true -b re ds ) We label the different generations of a cross as: P generation   (parents) F 1 generation   (first filial generation) F 2 generation   (second filial generation) Terminology
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Genotypes and Phenotypes ___ ___ Genotypes ____________ genotype: Both recessive alleles must be present (rr). ___________ genotype: At least one dominant allele is present (R-). Character: Tongue Rolling Being able to roll your tongue is a dominant phenotype. Man pictured to the right: Being able to roll your tongue is the dominant trait ( phenotype ). What would be the dominant genotype ? Woman pictured to the right: Not being able to roll your tongue is the recessive ( phenotype ) . What would be the recessive genotype ? So what is the baby’s
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2011 for the course BIO 100 taught by Professor Robinson during the Winter '08 term at BYU.

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12GeneticsHealthSciencePowerPoint - Genetics &the...

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