Lecture1 Intro_notes

Lecture1 Intro_notes - ISP 205: Visions of the Universe...

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Unformatted text preview: ISP 205: Visions of the Universe Section 1 T/Th 8:30-9:50 AM Professor Megan Donahue Thursday, September 1, 2011 1 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe • What is our place in the Universe? • How did we come to be? • How can we know what the Universe was like in the past? • Can we see the entire Universe? Thursday, September 1, 2011 2 Address: Earth • How would the Universal post office find us? Thursday, September 1, 2011 3 Address: Earth • Ho Thursday, September 1, 2011 3 Address: Earth • How would the Universal post office find us? M Mi chi egan gan Do Eas Stat nahu e e tL ans Univ e ing , M rsity I Thursday, September 1, 2011 3 Address: Earth • M Mi chi egan gan Do Eas Stat nahu e e tL ans Univ e ing , M rsity I Thursday, September 1, 2011 3 Star A large, glowing ball of gas that generates heat and light through nuclear fusion Thursday, September 1, 2011 4 Planet A round object which orbits a star; cleared out its neighborhood. Planets may be rocky, icy, or gaseous in composition. Thursday, September 1, 2011 5 Moon • A rocky or icy object which orbits another object. Thursday, September 1, 2011 6 Asteroid A relatively small and rocky object which orbits a star. Thursday, September 1, 2011 7 Comet A relatively small and icy object which orbits a star. Thursday, September 1, 2011 8 Solar (Star) System A star and all the material which orbits it, including its planets and moons Thursday, September 1, 2011 9 Nebula An interstellar cloud of gas and/or dust Thursday, September 1, 2011 10 Galaxy A great island of stars in space, all held together by gravity and orbiting a common center Thursday, September 1, 2011 11 Universe The sum total of all matter and energy; that is, everything within and between all galaxies Thursday, September 1, 2011 12 How did we come to be? The history of the universe Thursday, September 1, 2011 13 How did we come to be? The history of the universe • The Big Bang starts the expansion. Thursday, September 1, 2011 13 How did we come to be? The history of the universe • The Big Bang starts the expansion. • 5 minutes later, nearly all of the hydrogen and helium forms. Thursday, September 1, 2011 13 How did we come to be? The history of the universe • The Big Bang starts the expansion. • 5 minutes later, nearly all of the hydrogen and helium forms. • Expansion proceeds everywhere except where gravity “wins”: solar systems, galaxies, clusters. Thursday, September 1, 2011 13 How did we come to be? The history of the universe • The Big Bang starts the expansion. • 5 minutes later, nearly all of the hydrogen and helium forms. • Expansion proceeds everywhere except where gravity “wins”: solar systems, galaxies, clusters. • Stars create all the elements heavier than helium. Thursday, September 1, 2011 13 How did we come to be? The history of the universe • The Big Bang starts the expansion. • 5 minutes later, nearly all of the hydrogen and helium forms. • Expansion proceeds everywhere except where gravity “wins”: solar systems, galaxies, clusters. • Stars create all the elements heavier than helium. • Rocky planets form. Thursday, September 1, 2011 13 How did we come to be? The history of the universe • The Big Bang starts the expansion. • 5 minutes later, nearly all of the hydrogen and helium forms. • Expansion proceeds everywhere except where gravity “wins”: solar systems, galaxies, clusters. • Stars create all the elements heavier than helium. • Rocky planets form. • Life begins from “star stuff” on at least one particularly friendly planet. Thursday, September 1, 2011 13 How can we know what happened in the past? • Light travels at a finite speed (3 x 105 km/s) Thursday, September 1, 2011 14 How can we know what happened in the past? • Light travels at a finite speed (3 x 105 km/s) Destination Moon Sun Sirius Light’s travel time 1 second 8 minutes 8 years Andromeda Galaxy 2.5 million years Thursday, September 1, 2011 14 How can we know what happened in the past? • Light travels at a finite speed (3 x 105 km/s) Destination Moon Sun Sirius Light’s travel time 1 second 8 minutes 8 years Andromeda Galaxy 2.5 million years The farther out we look into the Universe, the farther back in time we see! Thursday, September 1, 2011 14 The Universe has been expanding for about 14 billion years. Thursday, September 1, 2011 15 A light year • The distance light travels in one year. • A year is about 3 x 10 seconds 7 • • Thursday, September 1, 2011 3 x 107 seconds x 3 x 105 km/s = 9 trillion kilometers (6 trillion miles). 16 Prof. Megan Donahue • SB in physics (MIT); PhD in astrophysics (University of Colorado), post-doc work at Carnegie Observatories, Space Telescope Science Institute, research staff at STScI, MSU professor since 2003 • • Research: clusters of galaxies, cosmology, galaxy evolution • • Textbook author Thursday, September 1, 2011 Observer with theory experience, work mostly with observations from NASA space missions Advisor to NASA, National Academy of Science, NSF, DOE 17 Two Course Websites • ANGEL: http://angel.msu.edu • • • • Course ID ISP205 Section 1 Site for posting grades, course communications, handouts Lecture slides for each class. Mastering Astronomy: http://www.masteringastronomy.com • • • • Thursday, September 1, 2011 Course ID: MSUDonahue2011 You need to register to setup a login and password. Student ID: use your MSU email (@msu.edu) Work is due before each lecture. Assignments will be visible for a week or 2 in advance - ok to work ahead, but don’t get behind. 18 Course • Read the book: The Essential Cosmic Perspective, 6th ed., Bennett et al. • Mastering Astronomy homework: register on-line, enroll on-line • iClicker: register in class or online. • 3 exams and a final • Extra credit opportunities: Viewer Mail and Viewer Music Thursday, September 1, 2011 19 Viewer Mail/Music • Email current Astronomy questions; put “Viewer Mail” in the subject line. • Send or email music suggestions (links ok): a big plus for music relevant to the day’s topic. • If I use your questions or music suggestions in class, extra credit points. Thursday, September 1, 2011 20 Exam Dates and Policies • In-class exam dates are: Oct 4 (Tuesday) Nov 1 (Tuesday) Nov 29 (Tuesday) • FINAL: Dec 14, Wed, 7:45-9:45 AM. • No electronic devices. Closed book. Bring an MSU photo ID and #2 pencils. • No makeup exams. No early exams, including final. • The lowest exam score will be dropped. Thursday, September 1, 2011 21 Class Policies • • Read the Syllabus for complete description. Respectful behavior toward fellow students and instructor is expected at all times. • • • • • Thursday, September 1, 2011 Arrive on time, don’t leave early. Turn off cell phones and pagers. Read newspapers outside the classroom. No distractions: no side-conversations. Class participation grades are subject to these rules. Failure to respect other students may result in a class participation grade of zero. 22 Grading Policy • Three out of four midterms+final => 75% (25% each) • Mastering Astronomy => 15% • In-class work: iClicker => 10% Thursday, September 1, 2011 23 Estimated weekly workload • Do assigned reading before class. • Mastering Astronomy work due before each class. Check Assignment list on MA. Sometimes both a reading review and a homework is due. • NY Times readings assigned with textbook (in Reading Reviews) starting with Ch. 5. Thursday, September 1, 2011 24 Mastering Astronomy Grading Policies Type of work: They are… Late policy: Required Not accepted late MA: HW Required Lose 10% per day, up to 50% MA: Exam reviews (ER) Optional No late policy MA: Reading reviews (RR) Extra credit on MA applies only to MA : use it for insurance against technical difficulties. Thursday, September 1, 2011 25 Clickers • • Clickers: think - pair up - discuss - answer again Purposes: • • • • • • • Thursday, September 1, 2011 Self-assessment (low stakes, early) Lets me know how you are doing Peer instruction, with feedback Rewards engagement and preparation Rewards lecture attendance Points start to count Sept 14. I drop your lowest 6 iclicker class scores: covers possible illness, travel, holidays, broken or lost clickers, job interviews, etc. 26 Fall 2010 90 81 60 63 58 30 16 0 16 8 4-3.5 3 2.5 2 1-1.5 0 Course Grade Thursday, September 1, 2011 27 Relationship between effort and exam performance Thursday, September 1, 2011 28 Relationship between effort and exam performance • Scoring more than the minimum number of MA points: +5-10% on average on exams Thursday, September 1, 2011 28 Relationship between effort and exam performance • Scoring more than the minimum number of MA points: +5-10% on average on exams • Attend fewer than 50% of the classes, spend less than 75 min/week on MA: fail exams. Thursday, September 1, 2011 28 Relationship between effort and exam performance • Scoring more than the minimum number of MA points: +5-10% on average on exams • Attend fewer than 50% of the classes, spend less than 75 min/week on MA: fail exams. • 4.0? On average, missed 1-2 classes. Thursday, September 1, 2011 28 Relationship between effort and exam performance • Scoring more than the minimum number of MA points: +5-10% on average on exams • Attend fewer than 50% of the classes, spend less than 75 min/week on MA: fail exams. • 4.0? On average, missed 1-2 classes. • Missing even 2 classes makes a difference on exams, even though the clicker points missed from 2 classes don’t affect grade at all. Thursday, September 1, 2011 28 Relationship between effort and exam performance • Scoring more than the minimum number of MA points: +5-10% on average on exams • Attend fewer than 50% of the classes, spend less than 75 min/week on MA: fail exams. • 4.0? On average, missed 1-2 classes. • Missing even 2 classes makes a difference on exams, even though the clicker points missed from 2 classes don’t affect grade at all. • No one who regularly completed homework and attended class failed. Thursday, September 1, 2011 28 Advice from previous classes: Thursday, September 1, 2011 29 Advice from previous classes: 1. Do the work. Thursday, September 1, 2011 29 Advice from previous classes: 1. Do the work. 2. Go to class. Thursday, September 1, 2011 29 To improve learning: • Use Study Area activities and practice exams on Mastering Astronomy. Test yourself. • Use generic lecture notes posted on Angel before each class: print them out in advance, write on them. • Do your own work: answer questions on your own first. Don’t just copy from a friend or accept their answer as your own.You won’t remember it. • Read before class to absorb more during class. Thursday, September 1, 2011 30 First assignment: due next class 1. Read Chapter 1 and “How to Succeed…” 2. Use Angel Lessons for links to MA & I-clicker 3. Mastering Astronomy (MA): Register and enroll in MA (follow instructions) 4. Complete first 2 MA assignments (practice/extra credit, but next week won’t be.) 5. Register your I-Clicker on roll call or using the Angel iclicker registration (see class website) Thursday, September 1, 2011 31 ...
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