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lecture9and10_ch6 - Solar System(s What does the solar...

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1 Solar System(s) What does the solar system look like? Sun Over 99.9% of solar system ʼ s mass 98% H and He Mercury A hot rock Venus The cloudy planet Surface is hotter and smoother than Mercury ʼ s It ʼ s another rock Earth The water planet The double planet
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2 Earth The water planet The double planet Two more rocks Mars A frozen planet Also a rock Asteroid Belt Lots more rocks 40 km Jupiter A gaseous planet, H & He Not a rock! Jupiter A gaseous planet, H & He Not a rock! Jupiter A gaseous planet, H & He Not a rock!
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3 Jupiter ʼ s Moons Four largest discovered by Galileo Worlds of ice and rock Io Europa Callisto Ganymede Largest moons in solar system are similar in size to Earth ʼ s Moon Io ʼ s sulfur volcanoes Artist ʼ s conception of the view from Europa ʼ s icy surface Saturn Giant and gaseous like Jupiter Saturn Rings are made of ice chunks Artist’s conception
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4 Saturn Cassini probe arrived July 2004 (Launched in 1997) Huygens probe landed on Titan Jan 2006 Radar shows liquid (ethane or methane) lakes on Titan Uranus The tilted planet: 90 degrees!! Also giant and gaseous Has many moons Be a scientist: observe the patterns in the orbits. Uranus & a tiny moon discovered with Hubble Space Telescope Neptune Almost a twin of Uranus (except for the tilt) Pluto A dirty ball of ice Pluto ʼ s moon Charon is not much smaller
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5 Comets Also dirty balls of ice Spend most of their time in solar system ʼ s outer reaches Have elongated orbits Comet Hale-Bopp Comet Wild 2 Planet X = Eris 2003 UB313, discovered at Caltech in 2003 97 AU from the Sun now, gets as close as 38 AU. 45-degree inclination of its orbit 1.5 times larger than Pluto, covered with methane ice It has a moon! What features of our solar system provide clues to how it formed? Terrestrial Planets: Four rocks close in Jovian Planets: Four gas balls farther out Pluto: An icy oddball Virtually all rotational motion in same direction (Right-hand rule) Rocky asteroids between Mars & Jupiter Icy comets in vicinity of Neptune - including Pluto More icy comets far beyond Pluto
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6 Exceptions to the basic patterns What theory best explains the features of our solar system?
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