Lecture 14 Thermodynamics and Enzymes

Lecture 14 Thermodynamics and Enzymes - PART 3 ENERGY...

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PART 3 ENERGY TRANSORMATIONS IN CELLS Thermodynamics, Enzymes, and Chemical Reactions
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The chemical reactions inside cells that are used to transform energy from one form to another, more usable, form are governed by the first and second laws of thermodynamics. These are physical laws that apply throughout the universe first law of thermodynamics: the energy of the universe is constant; that means energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed second law of thermodynamics: every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of the universe. So, during every energy transfer or transformation, some energy is unusable, and is often lost as heat
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Examples of the 1 st and second law: The leopard’s cells convert the energy provided by its prey into a usable form When the leopard converts this chemical energy to power its movement, some of the energy is lost as heat, increasing the entropy of the system
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Free-Energy Change, G free energy is energy that can do work when temperature and pressure are uniform, as in a living cell processes with a negative ∆ G are spontaneous “spontaneous” here means “occurs without an input of energy Spontaneous processes can be harnessed to perform work
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Examples of spontaneous processes; each has a loss in free energy, -∆ G, and each exhibits and increase in entropy At maximum stability The system is at equilibrium
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Lecture 14 Thermodynamics and Enzymes - PART 3 ENERGY...

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