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Lecture 23 Neurons

Lecture 23 Neurons - Membranes in action how neurons(nerve...

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Membranes in action: how neurons (nerve cells) work to transmit information in the nervous system Note: This topic covers an unusually large amount of information. To help you with this material, there is a full set of lecture notes in a Word document in the Course Library. These notes replace the slides annotations used for previous topics.
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Organization in vertebrates central nervous system : brain and dorsal spinal cord peripheral nervous system : transmits to or from the CNS Figure 48.2h Brain Spinal cord (dorsal nerve cord) Sensory ganglion (h) Salamander (chordate)
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Nervous systems process information in three stages: sensory input, integration, and motor output Sensor Effector Motor output Integration Sensory input Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Central nervous system (CNS) These stages are connected by chains of individual cells called neurons
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Dendrites Stimulus Nucleus Cell body Axon hillock Presynaptic cell Axon Synaptic terminals Synapse Postsynaptic cell Neurotransmitter Most neurons have dendrites-- highly branched extensions that receive signals from other neurons The axon is typically a much longer extension hat transmits signals to other cells at synapses Anatomy of a neuron
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Membrane potential Across its plasma membrane, every cell has a voltage (charge difference) called a membrane potential The inside of a cell is negative relative to the outside Ion pumps and ion channels maintain the resting potential of a neuron, which is the membrane potential of a neuron that is not transmitting signals
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