Lecture 36-37 Mutations and their consequences

Lecture 36-37 Mutations and their consequences - A part of...

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A part of an mRNA molecule with the following sequence is being read by a ribosome: 5' CCG-ACG 3' (mRNA). The following charged transfer RNA molecules (with their anticodons shown in the 3' to 5' direction) are available. Two of them can correctly match the mRNA so that a dipeptide can form.                          The dipeptide that will form will be A) cysteine-alanine. B) proline-threonine. C) glycine-cysteine. D) alanine-alanine. E) threonine-glycine
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Point mutations: alteration of a single nucleotide Two types: Substitutions : the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotides Frameshift : addition or deletion of nucleotide and its partner
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Types of substitutions 1. Silent mutations : no change in the amino acid encoded by the mutated codon. a. Conservative mutation: different amino acid but similar type (eg.; Both polar, both same charge, both hydrophobic) 2. Missense mutations : mutations that substitute one amino acid for another b. Non conservative mutation: different types amino (eg.; uncharged to charged; acidic to basic 3. Nonsense mutations : premature stop codon
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Wild type 3 DNA template strand 3 3 5 5 5 mRNA Protein Amino end Stop Carboxyl end A instead of G 3 3 3 U instead of C 5 5 5 Stop Silent (no effect on amino acid sequence)
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The dictionary of the genetic code Second mRNA base U C A G U C A G UUU UUC UUA UUG CUU CUC CUA CUG AUU AUC AUA AUG GUU GUC GUA GUG Met or start Phe Leu Leu lle Val UCU UCC UCA UCG CCU CCC CCA CCG ACU ACC ACA ACG GCU GCC GCA GCG Ser Pro Thr Ala UAU UAC UGU UGC Tyr Cys CAU CAC CAA CAG CGU CGC CGA CGG AAU AAC AAA AAG AGU AGC AGA AGG GAU GAC GAA GAG
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Lecture 36-37 Mutations and their consequences - A part of...

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