Intro+to+GIS - INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION...

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Unformatted text preview: INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS WHAT THESE HAVE IN COMMON? Vegetation map of the Amazon Basin in 1999 Ancient tablet (ca 600 BC) – The world at the time of Sargon: circle surrounded by water, with Babylon at its center. Models or representations of the earth Model = simplified representation of reality Use the fundamental principle of Geography Location matters! Geographers model the world we live in considering spatial criteria to understand the human- environment interactions Absolute locations: Described by coordinate system Relative locations: Described through a relationship between objects. How is the Geographic coordinate system defined? LOCATION SPHERICAL COORDINATE SYSTEM Graticule of meridians and parallels Longitude and latitude Units: (DMS or DD) Where are the great circles and the small circles? Graticule: a network of crossing lines on a map representing parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. LAT / LONG COORDINATE SYSTEM LATITUDE Parallels of latitude 0° latitude north latitude south latitude 90°N equator LAT / LONG COORDINATE SYSTEM LONGITUDE West Longitude Meridians of longitude 0° longitude Prime Meridian East longitude Greenwich, England …so can we easily, conveniently, sensibly calculate length and area using degrees of longitude and latitude? Not really… All three red areas are 10 degrees on a side. (100 square degrees) • All meridians have the same length, but converge at the poles. • Lengths of parallels decrease toward the poles (from zero latitude to 90 degrees); FLATTENING THE EARTH: Frequently in GIS, you will do somewhat localized analyses Therefore you will often use a Cartesian coordinate system (squared grid) How do you go from the round Earth to a flattened map and coordinate system?.........
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2011 for the course GEA 2284 taught by Professor Annaszyniszewska during the Fall '11 term at University of Florida.

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Intro+to+GIS - INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION...

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