Population+Change+p.I

Population+Change+p.I - Popula'on
Change
p.I
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Unformatted text preview: Popula'on
Change
p.I
 Characteris'cs
of
popula'ons
 Geography
for
a
Changing
World
 Anna
Szyniszewska
 Outline
–
This
week
 •  •  •  •  •  Characteris*cs
of
popula*ons
 How
we
measure
popula'on
change?

 Popula'on
distribu'on
 Demographic
Transi'on
Model
 Issues
with
over
and
under
popula'on
 Characteris'cs
of
Human
Popula'on
 DEMOGRAPHIC
 •  Birth
rate
 •  Fer*lity
rate
 •  Life
Expectancy
 •  Death
rate
–
Child
 death
rate
 •  Age
–
Gender
 Distribu*on
 •  Net
migra*on
 •  Popula*on
density
 SOCIO‐ECONOMIC
 •  Urban/Rural
 •  Ethnicity
 •  Language
 •  Religion
 •  Educa'on
 •  GDP
 Demographics:
Birth
rate
 Crude
Birth
Rate
 How
many
people
per
1000
are
born
in
a
year?
 – Considered ‘high’ – 30 > per 1000 – Considered ‘low’ – 18 < per 1000 – Transitional birth rates – 18 to 30 per 1000 World
Net
Birth
Rate
2009
est.
 US
13.82

 Lowest
 Hong
 Kong
 7.42
 Highest
 Niger
 51.6
 • Almost
14,000
births
per
hour.

 • Most
take
place
in
the
developing
world,
especially
in
Africa,
La'n
America,
South
and
East
Asia
 • World
average:
19.95
per
1,000
(2009
est.)
 Demographics:
Total
Fer'lity
Rate
 (TFR)
 •  The
mean
number
of
children
a
woman
has
on
average
 during
her
child‐bearing
years
(15‐44
yrs
old)
 •  2.1:
minimum
two
children
to
replace
their
parents
 •  •  •  •  World
TFR:
2.58
children
(2009
est.)
 Africa
TFR:
5.0
children
 Europe
TFR:
1.5
children
 US
TFR:

2.05
children
 Total
Fer'lity
Rate
(TFR)
 EU:
1.51
 United
States
 2.05
 Japan
1.21
 Hong
Kong
 1.04
 Niger:
7.75
 China:
1.77
births
per
woman
 India:
2.68
births
per
woman
 Fer'lity
Rate
Trajectory
 Life
Expectancy
 •  The
average
length
of
a
life
expected
at
the
birth
 •  Increasing
over
the
decades
 –  Life
condi'ons
and
medicine
are
improving
 –  In
1985:
58
years
old
 –  Today:
67.2
years
(65.0
years
for
males
and
69.5
years
for
 females
 •  Lible
change
in
sub
Saharan
Africa

 –  HIV/AIDS
epidemic
 Demographics:
Life
Expectancy

 •  How
long
are
you
expected
to
live?
(UN
data)
 Highest
 Japan
 82.6
years
 United
States
 78.3
years
 Lowest
 Swaziland
 39.6
years
 Demographics:
Mortality
rates
 Crude
Mortality
(Death)
Rate
 –  How
many
people
per
1000
die
in
a
year?
 –  ‘high’ = > 20 per 1000 –  ‘low’ = < 10 per 1000 Infant
Mortality
Rate

 –  How
many
children
die
before
their
first
birthday?
 World
Mortality
Rate
2009
est.
 8.38
 Highest
 Swaziland
 30.83
 • World
average:
8.2
per
1,000
(2009
est.)
 Lowest
 United
Arab
 Emirates
 2.11
 World
Infant
Mortality
Rate
2009
est.
 6.26
 Lowest
 Singapore
 2.31
 Highest
 Angola
 180.21
 World
infant
mortality
rate
declined
from
126
in
1960
to
40.85
in
2009
est.

 Demographics:
Age,
Male‐Female
Distribu'on
 Demographics:
Net
Migra'on
 Push
factors:
factors
which
 force
people
to
move
out.
 Emigra'on
 •  Lack
of
job
opportuni'es
 •  Agricultural
decline
 •  Conflicts
&
wars
 •  Natural
hazards
–
droughts,
 floods,
famines,
volcanic
 erup'ons
 •  Environmental
degrada'on
 Pull
factors:
factors
which
 abract
people
to
an
area.
 Immigra'on
 •  Economic
opportunity
 •  Land
availability
 •  Poli'cal
freedom
 •  Jobs
 •  Religion
 •  Entertainment

 Net
Migra*on
=
immigra*on
rate
–
emigra*on
rate
 Net
World
Migra'on
Rate
2009
est.
 United
States
 4.31
migrants/1,000
 Highest
 United
Arab
Emirates
 22.98
migrants/1,000
 Mexico
 ‐3.61
migrants/1,000
 Lowest
 Federated
States
of
Micronesia

 ‐21.03
migrants/1,000
 • Today,
over
190
million
people
live
outside
the
country
of
their
birth.
 • Migrants
live
in
either
developed
world
or
those
developing
countries
with
vibrant
industry,
 mining,
or
petroleum
extrac'on.
 •  1/3
popula'on
growth
in
the
USA
are
migrants
 •  Reasons
behind
migra'on:
 –  Economic
 –  Wars
 –  Persecu'on
 –  Famine
 –  Environment
destruc'on
 Popula'on
Density
 •  The
number
of
persons
per
unit
of
area
 •  Arithme*c
density
(Popula*on
density)
**
 –  The
total
number
of
people
/
area
of
land
measured
in
 km²
or
mi².

 –  The
most
commonly
used
 •  The
least
and
most
densely
populated
countries
?
 World
Popula'on
Density
 (Arithme*c
density)
 •  a
measurement
of
popula'on
per
unit
area
or
unit
volume.
 Interna'onal
Density
Comparisons
 Characteris'cs
of
Human
Popula'on
 DEMOGRAPHIC
 •  Birth
rate
 •  Fer'lity
rate
 •  Life
Expectancy
 •  Death
rate
–
Child
death
 rate
 •  Age
–
Gender
 Distribu'on
 •  Net
migra'on
 •  Popula'on
density
 SOCIO‐ECONOMIC
 •  Urban/Rural
 •  Ethnicity
 •  Language
 •  Religion
 •  Educa*on
 •  GDP
 Urban
&
Rural
 Tampa
 Washington
D.C.
 New
York
City
 • An
urban
area
is
an
area
with
an
 increased
density
of
human‐created
 structures
in
comparison
to
the
areas
 surrounding
it.
 • Rural
areas
are
usually
large
and
 isolated,
ojen
with
low
popula'on
 No.
 Qichun,
China
 Tanxc,
Thailand
 Dalarna,
Sweden
 Ethnicity
 •  An
ethnic
group
is
a
group
of
human
beings
whose
members
 iden'fy
with
each
other.
 Language
 •  A
language
is
a
dynamic
set
of
sensory
symbols
of
communica'on
 and
the
elements
used
to
manipulate
them.
 Religion
 •  A
religion
is
the
service
and
worship
of
 God/s
or
the
supernatural.
 Educa'on
 •  Formal
educa'on
consists
 of
systema'c
instruc'on,
 teaching
and
training
by
 teachers.
 Gross
Domes'c
Product
(GDP)
 •  The
value
of
all
final
goods
and
services
produced
within
 country
border
 •  one
of
the
measures
of
na'onal
income
and
output
for
a
 given
country's
economy
 GDP
v.s.
Infant
Mortality
Rate
 Human
Development
Index
(HDI)
 •  The
UN
HDI
is
a
sta's'cal
measure
that
gauges
a
country's
 level
of
human
development.
 •  Also
consider
educa'on
and
health
opportuni'es
 World
economies
 Advanced
Economies

 (Developed
Countries,
industrialized
countries)
 •  Meets
western
style
standards
 –  –  –  –  –  democra'c
governments

 free
market
economies

 High
levels
of
industrializa'on

 social
programs

 human
rights
guarantees
for
their
ci'zens

 •  With
high
GDP
per
capita
 •  Distribu'on
‐
In
common
prac'ce
 –  –  –  –  Asia:
Japan
 North
America:
Canada,
USA
 Oceania:
Australia,
New
Zealand
 Europe
 Emerging
and
Developing
Economies
 (Developing
Countries)
 Have
not
reached
the
Western‐style
standards

 Not
least
developing
countries
 Least
developing
countries
 •  Distribu'on
(According
to
the
UN
 Sta's'cs
Division)
 –  Africa
 –  Caribbean
 –  Central
America
 –  South
America
 –  Asia
excluding
Japan
 –  Oceania
excluding
Australia
 and
New
Zealand
 •  Greater
challenges
in
terms
of

 –  Sources
of
income
 –  nutri'on,
health,
educa'on
 and
adult
literacy
 –  Economic
vulnerability

 Summary
 •  Defini'ons
and
trends
 DEMOGRAPHICS:
 –  Crude
birth
rate
(per
1000)
 –  Total
Fer'lity
Rate
(TFR)
 –  Mortality
rate
(per
1000)
 –  Infant
mortality
rate
 –  Life
Expectancy
 –  Popula'on
density
 –  Net
migra'on
 SOCIOECONOMICS:
 ‐  Religion,
ethnicity,
language
 ‐  Gross
Domes'c
Product
(GDP)
 ‐  Human
Development
Index
 (HDI)
 •  Differences
between
developed,
developing,
and
least
 developed
economies
 Video
 •  hbp://www.ted.com/talks/ hans_rosling_shows_the_best_stats_you_ve_ ever_seen.html
 ...
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