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Correlations - – Population Entire group of animals or...

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Correlations Positive Correlation: Increases in one variable are matched by increases in the other variable e.g. high school grades and college grades Negative Correlation: Increases in one variable are matched by decreases in the other variable e.g. hours playing video games and grades Correlation does not demonstrate causation : Just because two variables are related does NOT mean that one variable causes the other to occur The Clinical Method Case Study: In-depth focus of all aspects of a single person Natural Clinical Tests: Natural events, such as accidents, that provide psychological data Survey Method Using public polling techniques to answer psychological questions People in a representative sample are asked carefully worded questions Representative Sample: Small group that accurately reflects a larger population
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Unformatted text preview: – Population: Entire group of animals or people belonging to a particular category (e.g., all married women) Some Problems • Internet Surveys: – Web based research – Low cost and can reach many people – Samples are not representative • Courtesy Bias: – Problem in research – A tendency to give “polite” or socially desirable answers Separating Fact from Fiction • Be skeptical • Consider the source of information • Ask yourself, “Was there a control group?” • Look for errors in distinguishing between correlation and causation Be sure to distinguish between observation and inference (e.g., Robert is crying, but do we know why he is crying?) • Beware of oversimplifications, especially those motivated by monetary gain • Remember, “for example” is no proof!...
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