Operant Reinforcers - Feedback and Knowledge of Results •...

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Operant Reinforcers Primary Reinforcer: Nonlearned and natural; satisfies physiological needs Example: food, water, sex Intracranial Stimulation (ICS): Natural primary reinforcer Involves direct electrical activation of brain’s “pleasure centers” Secondary Reinforcer: Learned reinforcer Example: money, grades, approval, praise Token Reinforcer: Tangible secondary reinforcer Example: money, gold stars, poker chips Don’t lose value quickly like primary reinforcers Used with troubled children, adults in special programs, and elementary schools Social Reinforcer: Provided by other people Example: learned desires for attention and approval
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Unformatted text preview: Feedback and Knowledge of Results • Information about the effect a response had • Important in human learning • Knowledge of Results (KR): – Increased feedback – Informational • Feedback is most effective when it is frequent, immediate, and detailed Programmed Instruction • Information is presented in small amounts, gives immediate practice, and provides continuous feedback • Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI): – Learning is aided by computer-presented information and exercises • Educational Simulations: – Explore imaginary situations or “microworld” that simulates real-world problems • Example: “The Sims” computer simulation...
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  • Spring '10
  • -
  • tangible secondary reinforcer, satisfies physiological needs, direct electrical activation, Knowledge of Results

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