The Formal Operations Stage

The Formal Operations Stage - The Formal Operations...

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The Formal Operations Stage (11 Years and Up) Thinking now includes abstract, theoretical, and hypothetical ideas Abstract principles: Concepts and examples removed from specific examples and concrete situations Hypothetical possibilities: Suppositions, guesses, or projections Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Children’s cognitive development is heavily influenced by sociocultural factors Children’s thinking develops through dialogues with more capable people Zone of Proximal Development Range of tasks a child cannot yet master alone even though they are close to having the necessary mental skills; they need guidance from a skilled partner in order to complete the task Scaffolding Framework or temporary support. Adults help children learn how to think by scaffolding, or supporting, their attempts to solve a problem or to discover principles Scaffolding must be responsive to a child’s needs Types of Child Discipline Power assertion: Using physical punishment or a show of force (e.g., removing toys or privileges)
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The Formal Operations Stage - The Formal Operations...

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