Properties of Chemical Bonds

Properties of Chemical Bonds - as shown in , lithium can...

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Properties of Chemical Bonds Why Make a Bond? Why should atoms bond at all? In nature we find that some elements like He, Ne, and Ar are never found bonded to other atoms whereas most other elements are only found bonded to other elements. What makes the noble gases so special? The answer lies in their closed shell electron configurations. Because the valence shell of a noble gas is completely full, it cannot accept another electron into the shell. The nucleus is positively charged and pulls on the electron, so the loss of an electron from a noble gas is unfavorable. Therefore, like real nobility, the noble gases do not want to do anything at all--that is, noble gases are unreactive because they have filled valence shells. Any element other than a noble gas has an open shell configuration, which is unstable relative to the configuration of a noble gas. Non-noble atoms react to form bonds in an attempt to achieve a closed shell electron configuration. For example, when a lithium atom and a fluorine atom meet,
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Unformatted text preview: as shown in , lithium can achieve a noble gas configuration, 1s 2 , by donating an electron to fluorine which also achieves the noble gas configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 : Figure %: Transferring an electron from Li to F gives both noble gas electron configurations. The above reaction represents the formation of an ionic bond. The negatively charged anion, F, and the positively charged cation are held together in the bond by the attraction of unlike charges as dictated by Coulomb's law. You may have asked yourself why two fluorine atoms don't come together to perform the following reaction: Even though the reaction may appear to be favorable because of its production of a closed shell species, there is a way to have both F atoms achieve a noble gas configuration. By sharing their electrons, each fluorine atoms can have a complete octet in its valence shell....
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Properties of Chemical Bonds - as shown in , lithium can...

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