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Study Guide 2 - BIO 101 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Using your...

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BIO 101 STUDY GUIDE – EXAM 2 Using your lecture notes , define the vocabulary terms and answer the questions. Processes should be described. Always use your own words. It is much more difficult to memorize information that is not written in your own wording! If you have any questions, please email me or ask in class for clarification. If you are not doing well in the class so far, I encourage you to send your answers to me via email so that I can make corrections and comments. Your time is valuable. Make sure you spend it studying correct and complete information. Energy & Enzymes 1. Vocabulary Enzyme The catalysts in cells and are proteins ATP Activation energy Any reaction that requires the breaking of the initial energy barrier Catalyst Catalysts lower activation energy of a reaction & speed up reaction but are not changed by the reaction Protease 1 st law of thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be converted to different forms 2 nd law of thermodynamics During conversion, some energy is lost to heat, thus increasing entropy (disorder) Endergonic A type of reaction that requires energy input Exergonic A type of reaction that release energy “spontaneously” Substrate The molecule an enzyme works on active site 2. What are the first and second law of thermodynamics? How much energy is actually captured and used for work when energy is transformed? How much is wasted? As what? Only 30% - 40% of energy in nutrients is captured by the cell 60% - 70% is lost as heat
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3. What are the two basic types of reactions (in terms of energy need)? What is activation energy? How do catalysts affect it? Endergonic & Exergonic Activation energy is any reaction that requires the breaking of the initial energy barrier. Catalysts affect it by lowering the activation energy of a reaction 4. What biomolecules works as catalysts in cells? What are the the basics regarding naming an enzyme (i.e. know they usually end in “ase” and are also named for their substrate – ex: proteases break down proteins and sucrase breaks down sucrose)? Enzymes are the biomolecules that work as catalyst in cells 1. Some named for their substrate – ex. Sucrose 2. Some names for their function – ex. Proteases 3. Some retain traditional names – ex. Trypsin & pepsin Cellular Respiration 1. Vocabulary ATP Adenosine Triphosphate: the universal energy donor of the cell Glycolysis A process in which glucose (sugar) is partially broken down by cells in enzyme reactions that do not need oxygen. Glycolysis is one method that cells use to produce energy Pyruvic acid (pyruvate) a colorless acid formed as an important intermediate in metabolism or fermentation NADH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, abbreviated NAD+, is a coenzyme found in all living cells FADH 2 FADH2 adds its electrons to the electron transport system at a lower level than NADH, so it produces two ATP.
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