Bessemer Converter: a furnace that refined raw pig iron into an essentially new product. Andrew Carnegie: He became a telegraph operator then worked for the Pennsylvania Railroad and rapidly scaled the managerial ladder. In 1872 Carnegie erected a massive steel mill (Edgar Thomson steelworks) outside Pittsburgh, with the Bessemer converter as its centerpiece. Carnegie’s new plant became a model for industry, setting in motion the replacement of the iron mills that had once dotted western Pennsylvania by giant steel mills. Jay Gould: has a unsavory reputation as a financial manipulator, bowling over his adversaries with Trickery and False Reports and keeping score of his ill-gotten gains on the slate at lower right. His positive contribution is he forced down rates and benefited shippers by throwing his weak railroads against better-established operators. Gustavus Swift: invested in a fleet of refrigerator cars and constructed a central packing plant next to the Chicago stockyards. He built his own network of branch houses and a fleet of delivery wagons. He constructed facilities to process the fertilizers, chemicals and other usable by-products. Oligopoly: market dominance by the few John D. Rockefeller: His firm – Standard Oil of Ohio- was Cleveland’s leading refiner. Frederick W. Taylor: An expert on metal-cutting methods, he believed that the engineer’s approach might be applied to managing workers Scientific Management: First, eliminate the brainwork from manual labor. Second, withdraw the authority that workers had exercised on the shop floor The Knights of Labor: Its core principle is that everything of vale is the product of honest labor. It boasted an elaborate ritual that appealed to the fraternal spirit of nineteenth-century workers. Also, it the Knights of Labor grudgingly opened the doors for black workers. It could
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2011 for the course HIST 121 taught by Professor - during the Spring '10 term at Diablo Valley College.