Brucellosis. Brucellosis is also known as undulant fever because it is characterized by alternating periods of high fever and relief. The bacterial agents belong to the genus Brucella. They are small, Gramnegative rods and include B. abortus, B. suis, B. melitensis , and B. canis. In animals, these bacteria cause abortion of the young ( contagious abortion) and sterility of the female. They are transmitted to humans by unpasteurized milk and contaminated meat. On entering the bloodstream, the bacteria cause fever, chills, and malaise. Prolonged treatment is required with tetracycline, and vaccines are available for immunizing herds of animals. Anthrax. Anthrax is due to the Gram-positive, aerobic, sporeforming rod Bacillus anthracis. Spores from this organism are inhaled from the air, or they are acquired during contact with contaminated soil or animals such as sheep and cattle. In the bloodstream,
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