Final steps (energy-releasing phase) DHAP converts to PGAL. There are now two molecules of PGAL going forward. Two almost simultaneous reactions occur next: an oxidation and a phosphorylation. Energy is harvested in the oxidation of PGAL (H atoms and their electrons are removed), and the coenzyme NAD + is reduced (H atoms and electrons added) to form NADH, a high-energy compound. The phosphorylation, using some of the oxidation energy, attaches an inorganic phosphate group (P i ) to the carbon ring (the bond energy is similar to that of the high energy bonds of ATP). The substrate is now 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with two phosphate groups attached. A phosphate group is released to phosphorylate a molecule of ADP, forming a molecule of ATP . This kind of phosphorylation—formation of ATP by transferring a P i from a metabolic intermediate compound—is called
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