Labaree1997 - IO Scisaoiézzg Caizgzngrs:3;ch...

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Unformatted text preview: IO Scisaoiézzg Caizgzngrs :3;ch Cozrzsumz‘zzg the SCI}an if; US. 5 ’ oppormmtv to 2,9: an Cdugation. The precedmg chapter; 1mm: shown mm: (a? « ‘1» , é“ ‘ ‘ q ‘hods the zséemiess urge :0 get mad has uminmmcd flu I " ' ’ '1 “ m ' " ‘ ‘ 1; n ‘VQ :hc {he wayfi {in}: the pmarc .msmt m Mm";me minimum 1115 :22} hi strucmre of pa: 3m: schoaiéng. Math pressures have 6 Guns pnmtc imcrcsts OR'demtmn. wézh {he resuk that schoezhgg has cums m Serve {Em campeiitive needs 0? {he mm: ambimms Lifiii cum;me advantaged €C§UCQI§G§13ECGRSUETWE‘S {fora up on {he nppnimon) more {has} the whim}— ti‘vc weds 0f mafiy as a xz'hoie éfm cap-JEer citizenship and sqmnpctcm wka mamhipfi. Consume? demand fer cs'edentégfis-and rim ecosmmgc im'cmge [ha Earéng—Enas campsiied {he educazienai system H) assume a 1213M}; afrai- ifieé form, Thfi sysmm has, becomé hater (if creating émidious distmcmms amgng Students than at providing {hem mm the pmiitica} and Sodaé capa’cmcs R‘quéé for a heaiih}; SQGCEY. %n such a system, czducariemi plagment w mlzhc right scfiaoi. the right Cofiegc‘ {be {right programmés more fmpmmgr man educzmonafi peyformamce. and fairnng [O work Ihfi system we“ is n10rc2mpm~ man than iséméng E0 do {$16 curricuium wen. This is a Sysmm, in Show. that puis a pmméum on {he acquisitien efcducaaéonafi gredcmmés msr the masmry 0? educatégna} comm: Sdn'mfzrzg Cruzmmms, Cuisszémzug {be £235:sz ; TM z Rims? 0f the Problgm w, find mar Amcrimn smdcms am mmarka }‘ diaengagsd 5mm {EV €d:is;&§é0§23f prmcbsifi‘ Undcr these circumstanch it is hawk Sumrisam flu! in mam: (1.3%} i)? n a rcccm ham: {Mai}an Stfimbcrg idmtéfiea studfim fizgerwafic‘ WNWMA. mc‘EWL the warm) pmbicm facing: cdummm m [he {Inked 8mm; memg m: a midi?) m'cmy (ham/and high gchooi studems. he conciuées: “An extremciy high pmpmrion a)? Ammican high admoi swdcms d0 no? mks: SCPEOQF. or film? SfLidéCS‘ scz'énuséy.” "We: mm of {he pmbicm‘, ‘me says. é: in the had a? rcxmrééa that schoois have amiiabic to than to mmivars academic efi'mt 32mm}; mem- mm - monx’amm deréwd from $1}? prnceas of ieammg fissif— Em? extg‘mstu mom-Mm w nmtixmiun that comes from rim reaé 05‘ pairwswsd mmcqucagm (“manned WM: success or fmim‘fi, Whither these comemgsncefi are: zmmcdmw V 2 m1 rm {mm of gmdcg‘ {hrs rmctmm m? parema 0:“ {he rcgponses 0% friends; m‘ xfcikzjycd sin she form a? anticipated impact in other caéumsémmf scmngs Hf in the Admit world m" vvnrkjh . .. Over {he course Hf their edge-mung! cag‘ears. Wij‘im‘iffi are mcrmsmgiy ex» pump} :0 extrinsic rewards fm‘ “lumbarch What Sicmim‘g is «Laying m effcza is that {he key deierménam mi 3&2:ij Cilg;fi}2€£§i€fii m wimoimg as the exchange vaqu 0% wucanmz 53:23 31' Hum us may \‘Ahfls, i‘ccmac no mgmarjv gmi of 9mm:ng an cdncmon ms Mamie me mumm of cdmatmsm} credentiais — svmimiéc goaaigk Such LES mac“ are i— ( m and dsgrccs ~133Eh€r {nan {he agquisirmn of usefuf and knawiédgc. in 32": argmncm [hm i5 «umfiar 0 {he one 5 mafia m Ems Koog Stcmbcrg séamw Shag Ri'micma’ add w zhcmsches {0 this. sétmtém‘: in a manger (Em: is mfimmi m Eight M {be incentives am. msmcemkwes mm; ' Sm: um crmincs {Em proaesrs Of acquirmg an cducanon: ~ ~r 3 r"? v (a, m) {'3 J1 J; m 1'3 v. .4 “.3 ¢ C m if)“ whicnsq hchm'e in {he bencfiifi a? gchaoémg? Yea Jmi gm” Swaicms MESH: m {he bmcfirx awmmred WM] gaming a dipiama m a «icgres, hm ($383" an: rsml ahnm the 3wncfits ‘kssmi‘ncd with 6:56: Ranking 0? doing wefi m dam In E I whet“ mn‘dx. Wudcmg . . , {wreath iiciieve that Ami Sgt? graduate; 5mm} a berm" {EMIEQC nfgemng glued mbg {ham high schmfi gmduaicg. WEEO‘ in mm Sinai (a Exciter dunes of necupatmnai SUCCESS {ham dmeUIS. Ar the Same {ima Emw- cx’cz'. {hey du I301” asmcmtc thcr SUCCESS eithsr WM: dons? :5 ’5 mum of their gmdm m" {he m'nhmtimm 0f their {and} "{5} 0: With [mmwzfr wing Scéumix have m react mm GE’CSJWELW mmwmsmx }‘\i’§1cth€ {me graduates m nm hma' \Vcié 0m: dim; m what one ieams ainng {he m}: m n {he prcméfing belief M1103}; L - npnmm‘ Sméfimgwamf our windy \ikfigr‘affi {Eur E: 5': - if i: any to undersiand Why m many stm‘ifims COM? {Earnugh xchnmi wérhnuz devotng misch finsrgy to {new SC Gmixwu'k‘ A 4 ‘ z {; Seimnfmg C(mszmzm's. filmszmzmg the 552300! Within, a Emilie? syst€m in wiiiizh Liii {inf caums is gs‘aduafion w in which mm,- mg gomi grades i3 seen as equimicm i0 63?ng mediogre (mes, or warm: yam m which imming semeihmg {mm scimoi is 35 unimpoimm-—-9mdcm9 chomge {he path of ham: resumncc." {a this going. Steénbgrg‘s argument is paraiiei to my own. Tire mixin— Simis he drama {mm rink amiygis. however, are quite differmir. AS a pxyciiiiio» gist. 31c ziiiimg eij; chooses to parrmy SEEKiEHI disc:3g3g€ment {mm imming as em emide pmbiem and {he soimiong he proposes are aimed :1: Changing than MW“M atiizudc. His basic sfiragegy for reform is; to raise the coat 0i imadcmic iaiiurc. Stu ems have bficn a e m coast smug at 3:; mo! Wit 10m exerting SCE‘iGLiS effort [0 ieam became a faiiure to imm brings kw significant CxfliFiCunRCGS; with a minimum amount a? work and a medesr amount of imming, iiicy can syiii pass, {Emir COEHSES and gmduate. But we? cm raise the cos: of academic s faiiurc at Emma. he says. by Gamma, ‘ {0 became more engaged in ‘ piessurc on students in take 7 Wm their ibiidfca‘s scheming, and {0 pm incrcage their schooiwm ' seriousw. We can a 50 raise the cost of academic {mime iii the warxpigce‘ ii€ argues—by estaiiiiséhiiig high acadcxiiic Smndm‘ds far pmmow Mmflww rim: mad giggiuatiom enioming {hch with 3 system ()56X81‘éfififlflifl18,m’id gii'» «MN—«7...; mg xicm cwnmmcteem 1y mm . ; Linda? immacriptstimiempioycrs can uac Uiseicct (he mes: academics fix accomplished 3p 305mm {0: iobs. As a secioiogisn however. i have taken a dificrcm approach in flying in cxgiiain {he dysfuncziimai chamcteriszifi of sciwooiing idsmificfi by Steinbergj ham: {mused icss {m the attitudes and behavim‘s of the gicimg who popuifiiie US. Céucation {hay} {in {he sysiemic factors that have Shapefi these attiiiie‘iea ¥mm the iatser perSpeCtivc, i haw: argut‘ acmai probiems {gang edugaiiim in {he Unin Stateswstudcm disengage- thai many of {w mam i0? 0:13 but aiso swab issues as sociai inefficiency and persistent sociai ressures m the eéucaiiami <yst€m Each mamas? of {his book is a ssmdj; in cducatirma cm— W . . . . k sumerism and credgmmiism. which shows haw the m‘ inequaiity—Me in {ozESIdfirabie pair {his msuit of market {he gas} (2% sociai mabiiizy i3 far h‘om compieta and it has been hotly contested me? {has jvisa rs hy suppoz‘tei's (if compeiing eéugationai gmig, who argiw for an Cducationai 53's“: ii that serves {0 pmmme sociai efficiency and/er Limimcmtic 33138:}; Sui: i have risd m shim; in (ma cnmexi after another the influence {ii {iiis pi’iiuiie pm‘speaive {m U5. mitimtimi has hem pmfmmd. \‘iv’imt we have $861} is a pariah: (ii a puiiiic educazimmi System din: increas— ~J / —\ \ Xi immiiszg (wimzwzws‘ £rii25zguzzégg five Vivi“; )\ t ,r \V/ -’\ ~n‘: , A _ HIKH'ELHDCCE? “NU? ‘ i n "W ' ‘7 ‘- ” m } 5 i} E E EK mu 5er am a; primie purposss. This afiaiYiifl fiugacifi {31 it __ L m Ln"; pm» cm wirii “Ci “‘ ' ' ‘ ' “ f k V A U V ‘ r , . . L Limiion m an“ Univ} ‘ ' ‘ V’ ’ i ..u Exams is not in?" ' WWW“ mé mi N 3 Jiiflflc‘fikd W b E I g “a swarming smiidardg {as fugeiiiberfi immio‘ , r ' ‘ s '3 3 ~ I x ) D r A z 1 Ti iii \ihfzilflififl mom tundgiiiwntai—Om unwiiiingncas is H» ’ : éi’fCiELif‘ééf mix ~~i *1 v a M ‘ ' ' U L‘ ( Jae Y m n g E in sitirmim LduL‘dUGI} agams; the: micmaciimcm: viiiiaiii'ic‘mg w mum-six; iiix‘cc 'mcsm’ ‘ " ‘ ‘ I E E m 2 \ . . ,gifikffiififs‘yfiififlifif ,rw in“ ‘> ‘ a Hm: m pom-iiiiiii Amp? {he ‘i’Wifi’i‘r ~ 9’ MC} We“ {hi make my gm V ‘ g ‘u § L r; au’HKMTHC and 5mm \féidL‘HES~ EIHQWH‘IIQ 1 3x ziii'z’i‘ { imcm EA . x £Ei€~—€fl£0£lffi£§i§ifi p l“ \ x I ‘ e ghthfifagC~hJYC hem msri< 7 Na. thdUUiE. mm. mm ‘1 him: 0i" prii‘aic pm; i\ lLini piiKSUEE {If COHEPE‘HUY ‘ mg H) {KEN} ‘Ci‘f‘s'. fil‘fii‘f‘iw makiim v - -' ‘ A- A ' r. a mic»; a siiiiiii mifmi {Sign {he bi’pmduct Meiji: bk L Ema S {m .Q‘x'x 3 {Q‘qu '3 scaiimiai {whim-finva i, the problems at persmiai ( Hilfudt‘ and mmimzimi {inn m «m- igh: of {in} in ‘ “i _ , K »» uzizfi-E‘S MU’E’ =1” ’ A” 3‘} A?“ ‘ J ( ‘ A . x ‘ I _ i ’LL{();-\ \ W i. may} zmriietxememd educazionai gym” a By u’mEi'w {i mama: m or V r v i ’ ' 4’\ r . A! EE‘ ES , g u A) gain in: grcaimi imisx‘ dim benefit if}: $510 '1: i ii“ ' 2110mm?mnramicif i k ‘ h m {St mm“, ’ , 9' “.4 A .. efmimg 11M 53“ w onsunisrs‘ win} um Siniimugg in: iwsi‘ undergwa in i “(NEWER iii: '; x ' ' ' A i C H m: iii} mini m nbmm {he most Him?) {3 commndirv a: {he 5 icmri: muiii * “ " * ' ‘ t, L ’ ‘ am is mm xx uh swdmr azi‘imdes‘ Wind} undi‘r {i}? iiiwmvm 3:: My { USEC 2‘ ' ' ‘ ‘ ' r i m“ S a g . Limiufllliiaiai‘ii‘ bur With the markei-ixficé iiiC"!‘fi¥“‘1 tint ‘i h})’ ‘ EV ‘ I‘ ‘ _\ x1 x\, L: mu: Magnum imiim US. Cducati‘m W “4' ‘ ‘ P ’ i 3 h H i a mus hfafififlfii is I1£'>{{i3€ he Liz; 1m: ‘ ‘ ' i 3 ' i ii minimum bu: {ha emergmgstrucrure 5) we a 12cm x g x i A / xv a _ 4 . cm (2d. naming; I;U2L)fizii a mm Sac i a swtcm -Wi‘ii"i ‘ W a r 2 V r > r i.- L mini iiiiiimiiigc 22f piibiic ammo; whi i (in. studsms are (mi? 5 i chm pics: prim. iapc hai‘im of Li T hem is, EN a pmmmes pm". cii goes am m 555 may :0 “€383 and i3: undei‘cm rmi CLiUCRfiQHsii ‘1CC(3§‘€3pii§i‘- E l. V Z in) a W '1 I v * ‘ ‘ was man. graduaics mam empimem need air HXpNTI‘S PETSN'VC mingfii‘iifi‘tai LiiSUIEQUUHS ti mum; Ami which ; gm afim‘ii, The H 35207105! Ram‘s Off/28 Probism A unitm‘ {E ‘ V " ' ' ' ‘ gr m U ’ i x mm of this book has new to fixpiain how if is {bat fiduwmim X g ‘ \ 2 A ‘ ' 3 ' \ '1 ‘- ' ‘ h LI ‘7‘ E’ E f mu; SMILE» Wm: m assume: its current iorm an i Si’vem ti {aw-x 3W3 » \LV‘VVVL iigmi sowing in ummmcr demand and highi Cdtfléifle’ionfii (i‘CL‘iCEiE’iJiS. A i: WM m C“ mt i5 E3052“; I V mmsfi 01 {h 3 so uisii‘imi a? x i a v » ‘ H I win; may {0 cxpiore this tiwmc m g; (“mm A msc Silh.i}' of {me (if {i m Sim 311§?’{33‘}‘OfSCEEDOiifigiH {iii 121w? Cii’pfi} is; 2: most dmmaiic (ind canscquemiai €me 5 country: {i 7 ii: exirgiozdiiiariiy rapid exmmmn MC nmcfccnti} dfld egiriy m'cmieiii ccnmriéa Wini- sing? in consid“? more sygtcmaucaiii’ the \‘aiidzifl' (if A mm'y{ifcducarimiaidei‘aiopmcm. ' i i E ‘ u; 9mm»; David Brown mckiss {12 gm 14mg piiwimi Etilflidi‘fi wi mini}! § 2’ x' ‘ i - “ “ i ,i s E] 3mm in .Xziiimazi matrix: whi‘ did iiie {immd ‘8’ mm £\lisi(}iiiin;‘irf‘ gi‘iiuxiii. Ci‘iiimgn’cd with mi 0: mghcr CUUL‘miOn in iiici msv (Ei‘io provides 3 ch cm mining}: m :2 ii iii [,h’sjrfiew 1. iiflpfli‘mfli’ (gizssiigiz‘; {Ema 30 named {(3 Li§1d€¥'8¥3§‘zé rim" cemwi mii‘ “IVE are»; cxpci‘éaim Minn ii} (1%"; .7 Hg Camszgim’rs. {flawsmmng 557.36 Sgimuf ' 30min: in mm? thrcna m must much“ higher education a: @1350 an CLUE} 5 gz‘amcd to a miatix'c’iy armii cdugarinn Ems 30w. been seen 33 A pm“ch {hm é proportion of the popuiazém. m this country ii has; incrcagmgéy cums :0 ‘in 9851‘! as a Fight 0? {ins ordimz‘y amen. Am‘j ibis rapid mm: accxsééwiim' :52 um {m‘sy ream: phmomfinan. As grown notes. between WW; and w) the {30m who amended msmumms 0? higher guinea» hung before 88:? m a pmporzéon of geiiegeflgc mm mm: 5mm 1.” psrcsm m 13.0 percent.‘ Thés change occurred :fiepmiifgmmmi {fimgiamfl 5mm L1:§i¥'€§‘8i§§€5&fid cmmmxmty ancgcs made It pusséhie 3: {he 9nd} {1% {he {wcmiez‘n century for the: maéorizy hf ynuth m aha {inked SLEECS {a sum“ m some form of Engine? Magamm. The {JHQE of pagsi’nie anawra m this: qucsmm is urnuidcrahic‘ and cad“. l firermzi’ve :efkcts its mm :‘iémncme mug of the nature a? US. pnhrécaé mm socégfi iéfeé ’i‘faa‘ exampie‘ pc‘rhaps {he mpéd growth in she oppnmamty for higher aducatéon was an Cpr€§S§OH of cgaéimrmn poiétécs and 3 umfirmmim Hf {by Amencan Drama; pcr‘mps ii mm a pm iogicai cover my perségtem inc‘qua‘itfiy; or pcrimps it was; mm"c‘x}' gm amid-cm. :26 of a stmggic f0? something ahngcthcr difl’cx'cm. Emmi dfi'crfiénn. pfm‘idmg édcav :m ummendsfi cemequen Bmwn cxpiaim €335 Spectacuiar growth and pecu‘iim stmcmre w? US. higher Macadam Eu hgh: 0f rim wk of coilcge crcdmztmis in Amerimn MC. L ‘12. Tméiziimai expimazigm d0 110:th up Very \YCH under atrium}: Structmx hmmémmhs: {fieery 33321368 am an sxpmdmg cmmmzy creased a pomrrfui demand for advanced teghmai Skii‘is {human} capitafi)‘ which (miy {1 rapid expansion of? highsr edufimon muid fiEE. But Brawn moms {hat Liming ihis expaasion mm: Students puz‘sued programs :10: in \‘éwcaténnzfiJechmmi gummy uh bu: in fibers? ans. which mean: (ha {113 farms 0f kimwicdgc :‘ncy “were {€me fmm {he ecmmmicafly preductivc skng supanth 3 rcpmduczien {hcory {mus the university as a nsdumésm that £33136!de m prawn {he iwri‘s'iiegt’ of the upper middic £11135 Emma‘s. dm‘mg a time (Md: the decimc of mm meta?— : :. ¥ acqmrmg were demandfid by finpioyc‘rs. Soda x ‘Weahénd 3 W3}? of minim 1 EM)? Wham K bciam€ increasing; % Vida sash grazecmim. Bug xx'héée {his ihamy pmms m a gemmi autalmc of 0 expéam the hiswricai wmmgmcies and Agencws 1y diffiguit for ecounmzc {wind alone :0 prw ccfliege expangéem n faiist rha: anmaiiy pméacsd this outwmc. in fact, bod: 0% {$1656 {Worms we as?» iéaiiy functionaiisi in apprmcém portraying fitgher education 9.5 arising: amu- ’t0 531 3. 50cm} need —— \Véihin {he economy, in the first case. gmd waihm maximih the dais systtemfl m the sccomd. Cresdéimiaiést {hemxg howcx’en heEns accial‘w re 3::Qgigciéve effk‘gi‘ (Eon Wéthom dcaying agency. k umcaycs; <7? mgficr- A: currency {hat becomex‘ auractivc m educafifin dip pmas as a kind 0 cu; m Stasus gramps Seeking an admin;ng m the cum; of expamdmg higher educa aetézion for magi pmxiimm and ,Af'lflk‘gfflififls‘ {xugggmgggm 5,535 \girj‘mm; 1 g { mm‘dnw if x ti w w ‘- V“ , u aunmixmxmn0H1th Cdugatmn a»: '1 rm m‘gfic m ‘0n 1 , w _ a m. Samar &\ 31§§§L§ “1C 111 L :5 {Hi \. Ed {5H} Etiit H“ (— E < 1 K (31% 4 Vi 3“ ‘ L . L, x. i. 35$?) : au) 3 4E5? ) pH 0 «HQ, \ {3 é ' Qi‘ ( i 'E X E 1H Cn‘ ; l i ( { ¥ { E133 {ii LJ‘HH Ax {\ 3: “3 CE . U ERA. § 0‘ 1 ’E \T‘ N t l {A 21E1§xx :&L{ ‘t. x & - ~L xi V» i‘ -z« ) \i \‘H k i. L 91 531LK§ CI 1E1, (0 id is Q t ii 'i UHF U UL U Li. K , k3 8%: 1 mi“! 01!“ch : i - i ‘ 4 r H. ._ . } A i H m} An“ “mm”? b???“ Mazfl‘m in mm «com m 2136 832"“ 7% mum {he CdLKSJi’iOHRE m‘N‘kCS. k ‘ h Hum“ E Lfifir id 3 x x i EULE i “$3 1,? I I . ( x i { in“! 5E; “0‘5 {3 (A. L,; ('xkfg, U“! 3"; x39 01L i?” T720“: HQi‘s \ _ f 1 1 méwzgewmciérm 1g qr: , - x . t x 2‘ b \ L {MSK m; hi; my} my ‘ _ . _y 5 r ‘ ' ‘ * “Pit‘flmim \X’hm; a ,3! y ; 1 13 dmccmmmamm 05113; a 3‘ ; “HERB mm 1 H3} L‘Lii}L§i{l{)El‘ x ini \Qi. he hid‘! (ELK? {MW SEA 3‘ L3 L5 h) did. 11105 H l: H 3‘) g , “Q (E ( :3 ? PMNQLE 3‘: “( {Ii} 2" 5}» i a E C, ((3 \ g ; C‘ ) A ‘ I I , , z i V K < ) La! U M3 ‘ K :1 > n x V 1 , 1 l, x, ( L \ f L:\, \ 1 C (35 » N,“ Pt \' )‘k f E 3 fi 3 (H4; Ms“! M{ Hgdé , 9‘ HEM Eé H 3‘ E3 L} W} “Li t. I ‘ x 1 L LAY HA » (N A as! in . \r k d s. C \ 2 . L § c . (3 ' CL ' N 13““; \/ ’C‘k U Rt! UN 5‘) $1 ‘21 fl, {- f i k 3! E? ’ 5A} iczzc crmémm a a ‘- v " M~ ’ ‘ , I a 3L 1mm bussi‘améy i!flfi}p§0fx’€€8i§ffi rewardma 1 uemmbm gobs. Uh: L 5 ihc puramz‘ Maui dcgrcv h?) : M's m? ‘ > A , Ems, Bmwm shows (ha: Evcm'cm Hxlc C) (3 IL >380? { l!“ J I l x C L i. ‘ u x xi)” a E 5C} xi}; {({Q C 6 i '1 L"; X{ N N; I; I h ,. }. _» I} L 31 .5; ‘ 1" ' ' V \ Em: Brown 02390?ch (fiat énm Heflirgucg 1 ma {,2 as 3Hng z) ii}5flfll{3€>fl CFCAUOH R1§§ (.E' mm 0311?? 7‘ ' r ' ‘ ‘ > #7 .5 pom 3.3 mafia Mum Mt not Konrer m Cm ‘ mt CE‘CQCEIUJ a. 7 t N k ‘ WW” " ’ ' 'g - k L 82mm}. 13 m) gum} cndcncs mat a milegfi Scare? 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First coflcges were nut going :0 be Rifle m at’ii‘ait huge mum??ch a? new Students ——who WCK’ after (23% imiikfly m We motivatcé 303615: by the bye 0f imming— unless {hey amid nf‘fcs‘ thew scudemg hath a pleasant mm expericnce and a practical cdumtihm cxifi'Eré- for most 0% me m;me mag 11832362“ 0f Whifih W33 {31:2 warm at m cgcs century. Swami. {wieges comm nm mxmsmn :xs credsmmmgmsmunmm1mm .articuiar {mm 05 crcdcnthfls‘ but in $380 thcy dam; h3g3 monopoiy over a xvsz mi; cmmpfimg a Heath; with fiigh sc‘mmk Em {he game St’udcxztx. {Marl}; {heir {redemiais was: me: mum to have any “aim: {m the mariam pniosa cm: W ‘ t ‘ _ M area, and sud: a pg'eficrence was SUN not obvmus at this game. According :0 firm 'm a major shift in each of rhese {gators occurer m th mfic; (wermppéy of imrétmnms £8803. Th5} Uiggfl {‘1‘}th change was a Si a’fiiativc m exiamm a €mam . in this éifC-é‘pr—death Situaiion, coficgcs dcspcmeiy mugh: m matings the pcmé 0f poteniiai smdems. it is no comcédencc that {his {mind mazksd the rapid diffuséan of 6501’s {0 improve {he qtvaamy of sncifi W Tubs, (Layap Me an aim ,usegé 6 0 pm :fcmzimn??? {mm-r mfieg} emd 3230 {he shifz tow: Wifiifikfi prac- 1 ; vi,ng modém ianguages and Science mes“ Latin and Greek J“ A: mafia {amp Mum-g {he same time, coiiegfis saughi to guarantee a flow (a? mutants {mm feeder mgiimEmm, whéd: {equiyed them :0 csmhiish a hierarchicgfl minim) wigh high SChflD’iS‘ The sad of {he century was the QCUOL m which afiiéegcs hfiéfifi‘rsqmr— mg gnmpietmn at a high school mum: as a prerequsgxm for co}!ch admxgwm matcad of {he Emdumng ummmm This sysmm garm‘flcd 31%} schmfig Mali 3 Siabie Giiiéfl fa? 1:5 graduaacs and 50139ch wéth «1 ps’cdiumblc k2: flow 0? wagonahiy WISH—mepared sméfiema None of thsg “(mm haw hem k poisébfie. hmx'iwm“. if {he {Oi}ch degme ind um Acquircd a fiiglmimm ex— change miuc m {be him; maykez. \Yirimut (his. {here wmtki have Ewen mnly semi rcasom {m aircnémg wiiege. ané high scheois “humid Emu) Ind fink ézéccméwc IO Submit {0 milege mandates, “we iSSUt‘ a? empioym’ pfcécrmic has @0525: a Significmm pmimgw fami. prohism for urkdémialist thew}; which Ems asked the grader m gKQCpE‘ hm (‘é "pparmtéy comméécmrf; Agsasmnns about cmdeméais‘ first, {he theory chéma may a £33?ch dggrec bar: {éxdzange x‘aiue in}: not necesmriij; USC-Yéhlt: {EL}: w, %t i3 attractévc to {he consumer became it Cafi be mafia? m an a gumi wb mm‘C , , i or $633 independentiy of any lemming; that WAS acquired a 011;:th way. Swami. thés exdmngc mhm dcpsmds {m {be \x'éEiiI1g:3€35<)fempimvm m hire appiémnis ywmmwmgwxmmwmwflWAMWWWMMWMMM \ .2 r 1 ‘ , ’ x~ \ VA ’7 _ Summafi; ( ,()?K§H73§{$3l {7,{$1;55!};I:P€Qfl?€q \UI,HH; i) «a 1 EMS”) a 4‘ ~ A '+ ‘ «‘7 an mdmamls Mom. wuhfiut aisrecz Emu-{@306 0*. W5 1: mafia“ mph; w a H 1 £ »_ x y , Hf; Rmm; 0‘ x 5 W " ~ " ' ' V 1‘ r #1:: {PM as: am Bu: this {£11585 a 5mm unStém} mum {he in human of no cmnimm" 't ' -‘ ' W " ‘ 7 ¥ n — “h” 3 ‘ I I , #2.: m tins pmuss. After 3%, mm- weuld .m thfifli‘ff ‘I’CSI‘ £17" ‘/ 3 r ‘t ‘V v V ,! ,-‘ I 2: 11mm } mnsahourtha pmductxvzryof mmzwmmémgca E‘wcpmfiir mm In a r x, ‘ 1- A a v - - ' ' 1 4 i 7 w x :3}, mi 4 «Mag: 8 {fftihcgtmn of cemnezence m rim magma {6 ; n x ;‘ ?w ~ 1 > w A \ ‘ M 7 Vi EA 7. umwu m‘ {hag ginmpcmmer A a F) . )\ é g ‘ i . .. 3 , H V rilu‘kgi '3 “Q! i5($.; {V ; i‘ V i ( I k ; a § a, H }in g! Salk: {‘30 C §3E10F§1§§2€§§ H}? ER? ‘H‘ (H 3.»? 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L (fig? 1 @nnénx'?“ “ > " " E ‘ A s } gm nudui “as mm m much the scabmcaé skééis 71mm; 3w immm r as a camch m ; A \ ‘ . ‘ n x r km amummg pusmom m amhm‘m me? other pcnpic EE'C '3 ‘7‘! > " \ X ‘ I v L 5 LS um: rm:ng that {ha unwgmg Amman] coiié‘gc cmm x; M ‘3 ‘ V RFD“ wait. {no mcromm *3 ' ‘ ' ’ i X P “ rs an: 3 “ ‘ '“ ‘3 “‘ ~ i gt g0;er some“ SUUUZUK 0! 5511mm {me on méécue mmpuscs pmwdcd <1 ’ ' . , '{ ‘ _ 1 _ h . i imtmn to: nnrmazuanc wmrk, and the WOW“- ) Law i 1:, LILk ‘\ (‘1 d H 5. x k ., s a & ‘5 < i _ (.3 ( Edi]: O Q L! H i § 7 < S l 3] i i, i {)1}! (“$539 2,11)"; ( i I L: S W ‘5 ‘. k! V i , f ‘ i g ~ , ‘ H HIUUUHUILCL LON LUK)” 011 ii I 33 E5 SHPCIIOEHK i“? L; ‘ V {,4 \l )5 :0 JL} 3 i if i? I § Cl Yfr mg: ait‘cmiui to?!ch but {hey W»??? am $53 hadSEBTMpJ ‘(3_"§; € 3" "" Y ’ R i'H‘I ECSL £391me 1 G >a.135tam1vc COHS’CQUGflCCS Q? 3 1V- mmcaéiu I T! ‘ I ad‘an as part {if {he cancgck formaé f 1 :1. MI an we Characzergmfi timt quaiificd ioiicqe alreafimtm for 13mm, bmmuu am empim'mem were a Side effect 0 I (Educ “up 115%? pLiE‘iSUK 0? .1? C 1 '\ > 73 ‘ 3 r“ '1 fl ‘ my“ run 1.1:. msng ucdmtm mm: a subsmnmv meaning: ti L {>{\C$ x! , “L4 5 §V§11}§.i’ if i5 4} §i¥ 1.1 5 Xa’i FUSE? ) I )1 h» EUXH g C} ,xL, (\ka Q 0 E vim” ) fianiifi that an gem; < p v _ ma“ mmamma “WWW? HIS chi‘ienmi Brawn gym“ ~ k s - x xx _,, xCE’X”’Td(S " '*' ‘ "‘ ‘ i L nmxpmmm mi: m {Eat iabnr marker by remicmg (EV? uncwwétm' 5%} at m a m‘ \ f. Up ’ ‘ "‘ v, < I ‘L Uh ‘ E .xlhilt,\.§f§1LP|{}LLS§ of Murmur-am; héflflg. After 3?? {0.533% a x . irwg‘" « n ' x , a ‘ 3 I x x #01 {ha human mpsms the}: coficge prox’ideai than £30: {fie 90cm} , my (33%“ was {m SEEIPEOR’i‘f ‘ E I . , , ,» V at? amid :30 ther Risa <3? «ark? A COEE ‘02“ h, {<3 {mm cam 2L xkszreemffe‘“ ' " ‘ ‘r 4 ‘ ' ‘ ’ g £ {std ‘1 dam; in wmpucmm X§'§3EC§1 Ema amass}? “haunts fichmfi ;* EX) 3C ‘ 3» x L" §‘ 7 ‘ ‘ U y a h; u a auxin mm d mm whsmm‘e was {MESH unmixed m riw cams"? “if 'h ‘ ' . 3 ix. E ;E\ J V s ufilsgccurmuflmm V ‘ i i x {X .‘sc’maimg (3)22521Hzm‘5, Cmnsmmzzg the Schema! 83" {he skiing 3%? ME picccs man? m pEacc for a mpid cxmméon of chcge 253$; drévcn by credemsaiist “pressures. Emping'cm Md t'CzlSim CE} FGZU‘EEHWS‘ SUE}? to give prcfcg‘ence m coiiegc graduates when hiring for mmagcmsm pmiiions. AS a rcsuk. maddieciass famiiiCS 523d em éncrcasmg incemivc m provide (heir chiidrcn with ps‘évéieged access" {a 3:3 gdx'amagcd social pngétiam 33$: finding {hem m coiicge. For {he Siiédt‘fiis {imczmcévesc (Elia cxu'mséc reward for amend— mg caiiege was x‘einfmced by ihc intrinsic bencfits accruing; from an gitmc Eve Sucia§ Me On cgmpus. Aii of {his crcawd a strong demand for expanding «)1?ch cnméimentsc anti 3E6 pyeexisung institutinna‘i condidons in higher eduw mama mgdc it pessébéc for coiieges to respand aggrcgsiveiy :0 this dcmandc A {heuaaud independent mszimtions {>5 higher adacmmx, accusmmcd m piaying cmmprcneuréaé mics in a campaign's? educational masks-t. were saggy to cap- ‘émiizc on {he surge of $1me in attending mime and m gdapi’ {hemscivss {0 {inc prefercnccs 0f {base new {uiiéQn—paymg consmncrg. The remit; was a pow— erqu flfid umeiezmng surge of expammn m coiicge ce’imfimcms Hm: cnminufi for the ncxt ccmury. As we have secn. {his game pat:an <15cansumcrwiflvcn cmcficmiai‘seekéng expansion akso characterized the bismry of the high schooL amm:1ischon§.ané éumm cefiegcc Tbs Cozmcgswnccs The urge m g6: ahsad has tmrésfmmcd the funk: {merion of U5. cdw U'ATISYOI‘IT} 830“ 135 cation from puh‘iéc senécc {<3 gamma SQE‘WCC” 3114 {Ms Sc umscqucm -m‘ {he peopge wim amend, wmk in. pay Em“ (and m vsxrious ways dcpené an American schook. {Tine maim pmbicm i5 6m: {musing on sefiiag creécmiaig to C(msnmcrs is . . r c ‘ , Wfl Agmmshmmy memcmm. Educamm ES the Eargcst smng puiwhc :m‘csfmcm made By most modcs'g} socécgées. and [his Sneamcm $3 gusaifficd on {be grounds 25213: i: provide: 3 cz‘ifimiiy impmtam conmbméon m {hi} coiicctivc welfare. a The pubiic “(aim of educamm $3 usuaé‘iy caiculaicd 35 somc cemifiiwanon ef twn 39:33 a? barracks. {he preparation of capaific citizens {:hc poiiticn! bcncfit) and {he {mining n? productive workers {ihe CCOQGmiC benefit). Hnwcver r135 argumcm i Emu: advancec} in {Sim 5001»; suggesfs (ha: {E3636 public benefits are not necegsgmiy being met and {hat {be primary bencficiarica are in f;ch private individamis‘ Ham {his perspecrévs. higher educarian {and {he cducationfi sys- tem mam gencraiéy‘; cxiszs Eaz’gciy as A mechamam for proviémg individmis wizh a cuimrai commocfizy Em: xvii? gévc them a competitivc zidvanmge in thc pummt of seciaé pnsitmza in Show. cdmcatimn becmmcg iifiic hm a vast puifiic saibsédy far pyévatc ambimm. T136 praczicaE cffect of Subgédx’ is the precincth of 2% 32km 0f gradxmfcs. E . mm m,.Mma~w-,»WF _ i «- §, § .m'imuimg {‘Twszsznizcrs. (J‘séxsmsmee 55W chfinf‘r/ J" W Tin JUIILUIU p.th 0} mm oummm :5 220: than {he pepmatzon bccmncs an?!» ccucawd finch A amfc as; difficult m ima T “HEEL WERE} but {$135 3? : €C0§U€S {H‘fi‘fii‘f \ . as pcnp c pursue Lipiomag 3655 for the kzéowicdgc {hcy arc thereby scam; than far {he JCCCSS {hat {he diplomas thcmsch’cs mil pmvidc. 721;? a’cwéi ix A spirai of credential mfiatiom for as cad: icwsé 0f educaimn m mm ginuiuaiiy f wank mm a cmu‘d of Alfih’éiinug consummg‘ mdé‘céduaés have m kccp Scckmg ever Higher Ecx‘cfs; nfcrcdcmiais i 1 order {0 name a 5:99 ahead of she pack. En such «a S}'St€§¥3 nobody \x'ms‘ Cogasumers haw: {0 meat? mac's;me Axpaycrs i ., scarce fiscal rcgources 30mg: m suppw‘ an cducafimm! chasm with imle pubiic bcmfig. Empim‘crs 3; “6p £1115» mg the cmz‘Hcvci cducaréém :‘equiz‘emems {Ur particuiar éebg {as {$6 Avcragc educatiam Ecvci of appiicams {£383}. but 636;? mi? 5nd £313: {216}; have m pmviéc cx‘fcmix'c framing, hefmc empéoyees can carry an? their work pmductivtshz A5 3%? levels. {his ii an cnm‘mmlsiy \vastef’ui sysmsm one {Mt i5 mireagiimh' érlamw jug: Em nch cnumrics like the Unitcd Emacs 3nd posimfly impm‘c‘gééz‘: ? 20v; dcv‘eiopcd cmmzrics {hat imitate the: US, cducatéazm? moch ; A <cc0nd mayor pmiflm‘n is that crccicmiaiésm uadcrcms 383m; ‘g. In bath cmiécgc and high schoné. smdcms are ai, me web aware {Eur may" misgion :0 d0 wénzicx‘cr it mics m ACQUEW g2 siépioma. which {hey can. cash in on Wlfmg r‘:’3§§}' mancrswa gum} mix Thia assumption has [228 cffca of mfvmg {he hwmai makers of academic progrcSS—gmées‘ creditac magi degz‘ccs M’mkd m- cmzmmmg xitiu‘cmx in focus their ancmion on JCCUEWLEEG’CEHE {hem 3x36:ch of mom for the cxcimmgc mime {hey offc ‘. Thai SEE‘aEngJ mmné direcfingz mm candy mm the Subamzacc a? Manning}, rcducmq studcn; nmzévgzrmz m \ ~ n r 33 x , g 1 r' - L ' S A RAH? E? c immxicdgza {ma Skzfis {hm cmlsmmc tbc care: of me educaummi cummlmn. Under such candiiiom. %{ is quisc mtkmsi even if cafizcatéor‘u Ei‘v acmmacmm Mr Studcms to Seek to acquire their ’mdgss sf mcm‘ m a minimum Amthflk cast {0 mm {51; mats): guide xx :th the mtmmum amount 0% imm— Mfg. Hm pirrspccm'c $8 M21108? pcrfecfly capmred by 42 cemmnn szudcm qmcs— 1mm am? that Sesndg chiifg down {he {flack M {h E8fifflifi§~c€fit€f€d {cacmr Em: mar mks gm éccr StHSL far {he cs‘cdcmml~0memca smcism: “13 {ms going in be on me man“ \Y’b have credcmmiésm m {hank for me gvcrsion {0 learning: may, m a gran: cxrmi‘ $ch 3: the hear: us merging {if 03.}? €‘ {HRH SYSYCFIL , i mama, which commu— ailjv undercuts {he cxchangc mine 0% a given ievci 0f crcdsméais and r§ze:‘e§me rcmfnrccs zhc cmmumcr‘s some: {in}: these cz’cécnimig 31%: no: word: a Siii}8{fi%}« m? ma‘csrmcm 0%" rimc and cffmfi. cczu mu. 3 c... ' " ' A mud pmmmn poscd L} cnnwmc€~drix'€n credcxmaigsm ES {318 wax if 3.6M) .‘égé’mm’zrsg Unzsingm {funszsmmg 15H" M‘ffiml z'cénfmccs snmgi £2112: maxim; :mdm {he guise of cxxmndéag miumzzoml 0pm}: “WWW {amTim opportume 3‘62}; enough, as in as it goals, for the mmwcmm betwcw sociz’si (Lass and education is neithcr as direct no; as gmmmaric as swig? reproduction theory suggests Marker forces mediate between {EEC glass pusiiénfi 0f studems and {has guess m and sacccss within the mfucaiénmi system Tim: is 5mm: is a gmsmi campaith fog" admission :0 insmumms a? EIigEae? Edumriam and fog“ leads of achim'emcm admin these: instimtmns. Gags advamage is rm guarantee a? succsss in {his compctétmn because such {factors as individuaé AMEN}; monufiémn. and km“ AH May (3 part ix: damming {he fissu‘m Mafia: forces aim medéaze between educationai anammcm (the ac— quiséréém a? ce‘cdcmégis; amfi soda? armament (the acquisition of A um! pmiimn). 30mg“ coii'ege dégrees are womb more: in that credi’ntiais markes {hm mimr‘s‘ :ma’ {hey pms'éde prix'iécged access: {0 higher—bros} poségmns indepen— dem of {he cuss {Wiggins 0f the usdsmmi hnideg". §n hash (356185“ msrket cempsiiiémls. Emwsycn one for acquiring: {he {re- dsmia? and the ether for cashing it in higher ciass pnsiiéim provides a signifi» cant compstmvc The ewzmmic. cuémmi. and sacéaé capitgfi that comes 1mm higher (Eass standing gives Ihc Mama“ an cdvamagc in gctsmg into unficgc, m dwéng wc’xi a: caiiege, and in, (muslatmg «:05ch crcdcméais mm {écsimble sncmi Ouimmcs, Wm markcr‘imscd mm pczéfimz that dmmcmrizes {ht acquisi- mm and désposézémz of edumiémmi creésméais gives the pr‘mess a mcmsxtmtic ibihiécs. Em: {he mfiucace m5 «:Esss on {his mmpmitézm gives it 3 SC? 0‘? p0 sociaiiy rcpmo‘uaéve SEE pmbabiiitics as we“. The danger is than as a rcsuir, A medcxztmi—dm‘m sysmm 0f educatmn can pnwide marimcrgma cover {at was??? repmziucrive (suzcomes. in {he sings-minded pursms m? cducmmmi afcéemmés. both student C(3fi§§§!}3€§"9 and the socicry that suppums {11cm (gm énsc sigh: inf cm aH-Z’OQ—presdiczabifi pazzem 0f nuscomts thst is masked Ea}; {he headiang rush for the tmsdeméc gflié, T325 Dozwzside of ngmzsd Mofiiliiy In spite a? 53%? Ihs evidmce and emaiysés that 635 the pages 0? thés hook, heim'fivcr, my argumem may appear puzzémgiy wrong-headed :0 many {cad- msx Am: 331 here I am atmckin the American system of education f'nr what is 7 recognizeé as its mos: praiseworthy attribute — 11:5 emphasis on pm~ mg 331 memhers 0? seems: xvii?) 0pm access to a ucariomi oppnrmnifiies. 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