Chapter 11 - Motivation - Chapter 11.1 General principles...

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Chapter 11.1 – General principles of Motivation Motivation – Process that determines the reinforcement of an outcome. Drive Reduction Theory – motivation is an irritation that continues until we find a way to reduce it. It is usually induced by a person’s needs or irritations that we try to reduce; they do not specify particular actions. (E.g. humans eat to reduce hunger, drink to reduce thirst. Homeostasis – the process of maintaining a variable such as body temperature within a set range. Motivations tend to maintain body states near some optimum intermediate level. They may react to current needs and anticipate future needs. Allostasis – maintaining levels of biological conditions that vary according to an individual’s needs and circumstances. Homeostasis (state of biological equilibrium) balance is disturbed Biological need (food, water) need gives rise to drive Drive (internal state of tension) organism motivated to satisfy drive Goal directed behaviour (action taken) drive reduced Need satisfied (hunger, thirst relieved) balance is restored Homeostasis (state of biological equilibrium) Incentive Theory – People are motivated to behave in ways that produce a valued incentive. Incentives work when we expect that we can gain the incentive and when we value the incentive. They are response to attractive stimuli. Intrinsic motivation – motivation to do an act for its own sake. Extrinsic motivation – based on the reinforcements and punishments that the act may bring. (E.g. Artist paint for the joy of creation (intrinsic) and for the hope of profit (extrinsic). Overjustification effect – when people receive more extrinsic motivation than necessary to perform a task, their intrinsic motivation declines. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
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Chapter 11 - Motivation - Chapter 11.1 General principles...

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