Chapter 13 - Social Psychology

Chapter 13 - Social Psychology - Chapter 13.1 Cooperation...

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Kohlberg’s Views (similar to Piaget) – moral reasoning is a process that naturally matures through a series of stages. Judgement can represent either at a high or low level and we evaluate a person’s moral reasoning based on the reasons not by the decision itself. (E.g. children general powers of reasoning change across childhood, so does their reasoning about issues of right and wrong) Kohlberg’s Moral Dilemmas at 6 levels of moral reasoning Preconventional Morality 1. Punishment & Obedience Decision are based on their immediate consequences. Whatever punished is “bad” and whatever rewarded is “good”. 2. Instrumental relativist It is good to help others, but only because they may one day return the favour. Conventional Morality 3. Interpersonal concordance (good boy/ nice girl orientation) The “right” thing to do is what pleases others, especially those in authority. Be a good person so others will think you are good. 4. Law & order You should respect the law, simply because it is the law and work to strengthen the social order that enforces it. Post Conventional Morality 5. Social contract legalistic the right thing to do is whatever people have agreed is the best thing for society. You respect the law, but you also recognise that a majority of people can agree to change the rules. 6. Universal ethical principle It may be right to violate a law that conflicts with higher ethical principles such as justice and respect for human life. 2 Limitations of Kohlberg’s views 1. Justice Kohlberg concentrated only on justice and ignored other views of morality. Different cultures have different interpretations of justice. (E.g. India, people seldom talk about justice, instead they speak of natural sense towards each other) 2. Moral Reasoning Vs Moral Behaviour Kohlberg concentrated on moral reasoning, not behaviour. However, people make moral decisions by quick emotional response, and then they look for a justification. Altruistic behaviour – helping others despite some cost or risk to ourselves. People act altruistically because they want a reputation for being fair and helpful.
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Prisoner’s Dilemma – a situation where people choose between a cooperative act or a competitive act that benefits themselves but hurts others. The competitive move seems best from the individual’s point of view, but it is harmful to the group. Effective strategies – An effective strategy against someone who plays the prisoner’s dilemma repeatedly with the same partner would be to use the “tit for a tat”. Cooperate unless the other person competes and then retaliate. 2 reasons for cooperating 1. To gain reputation and therefore gains cooperation from others. 2.
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Chapter 13 - Social Psychology - Chapter 13.1 Cooperation...

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