Chapter 14 - Personality - Chapter 14.1 Personality...

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Chapter 14.1 Personality Theories Personality – the consistent ways in which the behaviour of a person differs from that of others, especially in social situations. Psychodynamic theory (Sigmund Freud) – described personality as the outcome of unconscious internal forces. Catharsis – a release of pent up emotional tension, thereby relieving the illness. Psychoanalysis – Sigmund Freud method of explaining and dealing with personality based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious forces. Sigmund Freud views on childhood conflicts Initially pointed to childhood abuse. Later said that the problem was due to Oedipus complex - childhood sexual fantasies towards the mother and aggression towards father. His only evidence was that he could infer these childhood events from his patient’s dreams and symptoms. Freud’s stages of Psychosexual development of personality Libido – desire, Fixated – continues to be preoccupied with the pleasure area associated with the stage. He believed that many unconscious thoughts and motives are sexual in nature and frustration at any stage fixates the libido at that stage. Stage (approx age) Sexual interest Effects of fixation Oral stage (birth to 1.5 years) Sucking, swallowing, biting Lasting concerns with dependence & independence; pleasure from eating, drinking and other oral activities Anal stage (1.5 to 3 years) Expelling faeces, retaining faeces Stinginess, wastefulness, stubbornness, sloppiness Phallic stage (3 to 6 years) Touching penis or clitoris, Oedipus complex Difficulty feeling closeness. Male’s fear of castration, female’s penis envy. Latent period (6 to puberty) Sexual interest suppressed - Genital stage (puberty onwards) Sexual contact with other people - Freud’s structure of personality
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Id – consists of sexual and biological drives that demand immediate gratification. Ego – rational decision making aspect of the personality. Superego – memory of rules and prohibitions we learned from parents and others. (E.g. someone with strong id and weak superego – make likely to give in to sexual and other wrong doings that other people would inhibit) (E.g. someone with strong superego – he would be inhibited and dominated by feelings of guilt after doing something wrong) Defense mechanisms against anxiety Freud claims that the Ego defends itself against anxieties by relegating unpleasant thoughts and impulses to the unconscious mind. 1. Repression – motivated forgetting rejecting unacceptable thoughts, desires and memories and banishing them to the unconscious mind. (e.g. seeing a murder and forgetting) 2. Denial – refusal to believe the information that provokes anxiety an assertion to self that the negative information is incorrect. (e.g. a patient refusing to accept that he has a fatal illness) 3. Rationalization – attempt to prove that their actions are rational and justifiable and worthy of approval (e.g. student who wants to go to movies, convince himself by
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gina during the Fall '10 term at Southern University at New Orleans .

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Chapter 14 - Personality - Chapter 14.1 Personality...

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