Chapter 15 - Abnormality, Therapy & Social Issues

Chapter 15 - Abnormality, Therapy & Social Issues -...

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Chapter 15.1 Abnormal Behaviour Normal/Abnormal behaviour – APA defines behaviour as abnormal if it leads to distress, disability or increased risk of harm. However, any definition of abnormal behaviour has difficulties. Views of abnormality – People have described abnormal behaviour by spirit possession in the past. Today, abnormal behaviour is being seen as a result from a combination of biological, psychological and social influences. The Biopsychosocial Model – emphasizes that abnormal behaviour has three major aspects: 1. Biological roots – include genetic factors, abnormal brain development, deficiencies in the activity of various neurotransmitters or hormones. (e.g. brain tumours, poor nutrition, inadequate sleep or the overuse of drugs) 2. Psychological roots – reactions to stressful events and other experiences. (e.g. people who are sexually abused during childhood are more likely to develop psychological problems in adulthood; anxiety and depression are less common for people who have strong social support) 3. Social roots – certain kinds of psychological disorder are more common in some social settings than in others. Behaviours that is considered acceptable in one society might be labelled abnormal in another (e.g. alcohol abuse is common in Vegas but uncommon in others) Cultural influences – every culture provides examples not only on how to behave normally but also how to behave abnormally. Symptoms of disorder vary among cultures, and cultures influence the prevalence of various disorders. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) – known as multiple personality disorder in which someone alternates among different personalities. DSM –IV – A manual where all the psychological disorders are being classified and set according to the specific criteria for each psychological diagnosis. Carefully classifying disorders helps to ensure that psychologists who say they are studying the same disorder such as depression, really are. They are being classified into 5 seperate axes:
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Chapter 15 - Abnormality, Therapy & Social Issues -...

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