swahili grammer

swahili grammer - Noun Classes singular plural mwammi-...

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Noun Classes singular plural m- wa- people, animals mtoto, watoto m- mi- trees, plants, viewed like living ex fire moto, mioto ki- ch- vi- vy- objects useful to humans, artifacts kitu, vitu ji- ma- fruit, parts of plants jiwe, mawe n- n- junk and borrowed noun class ndizi, ndizi u- abstract qualities/ long thin objects upanga, panga pa- ku- mu- definite location general location internal location nyumbani ku-verb verbal noun kununua, kw enda plural u- class goes into the plural n- class m- wa- noun class u class (and translations) add u in front mwalimu uwalimu (teacherhood) mtoto utoto (childhood) nouns to the pa/ku/mu class just add –ni suffix moto motoni (in the fire) mioto miotoni (in the heat) kitu kituni (in the thing) vitu vituni (in the things) chakula chakulani (in the food) vyakula vyakulani (in the foods) jiwe jiweni (in the rock) mawe maweni (in the rocks) ndizi ndizini (in the banana(s)) upanga upangani (in the sword) panga pangani (in the swords) adjectives nouns just add a u infront of the adjective -kubwa ukubwa (big things) -baya ubaya (bad things) -zuri uzuri (good things) verbs to nouns m- class = m-verb-ji wa- class = wa-verb-ji u- class = u-verb-ji ji- class = verb stem-o ma- class = ma-verb stem-o 1
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ex: soma msomaji, wasomaji person/people who read usomaji way/state of reading somo, masomo reading material/s ex: nunua mnunuaji, wanunuaji person/people who buy wanunaji state of buying nunuo, manunuo object(s) to buy/bought Adjectives agree with the noun they modify usually follow the noun they modify some problem areas: the ji- noun class adjective has no prefix (ex jiwe refu) the u- noun class adjectives start with m- (mw- in front of vowels, w- when plural [ex –ingi, many]) the n- noun class adjectival roots which begin with p, t, k, f, ch have no prefix adjectival roots which begin with b have a m- prefix adjectival roots which begin with d, g, z have a n- prefix all animate nouns govern m- wa- concords except for with qualifiers (but not –a, ‘of’) ex. mtoto wangu………. .my child mama yangu………. .my mother baba yangu ………. ..my father rafiki yangu …………my friend mama zangu………. .my mothers baba zangu…………my fathers rafiki zangu………….my friends mama wa juma……. .mother of juma baba wa juma……….father of juma rafiki wa juma………. .friend of juma
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course SWHL 2420 taught by Professor Nanji during the Spring '08 term at Columbia.

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swahili grammer - Noun Classes singular plural mwammi-...

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