GROWTH OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY --Comprehensive Version-- Not Presented in Class

GROWTH OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY --Comprehensive Version-- Not Presented in Class

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Chapter 4 The Growth of Anthropological Theory
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Evolutionism The nineteenth-century school of cultural anthropology, represented by Tylor and Morgan, that attempted to explain variations in world cultures by the single deductive theory that they all pass through a series of evolutionary stages.
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Evolutionism in Brief All cultures pass through the same developmental stages in the same order. Evolution is unidirectional and leads to higher levels of culture. A deductive approach is used to apply general theories to specific cases. Ethnocentric because evolutionists put their own societies at the top.
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Lewis Henry Morgan Lewis Henry Morgan, a nineteenth-century evolutionist, held that all societies pass through certain distinctive evolutionary stages.
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Morgan’s Evolutionary Stages Lower savagery : From the earliest forms of humanity subsisting on fruits and nuts. Middle savagery : Began with the discovery of fishing technology and the use of fire. Upper savagery : Began with the invention of the bow and arrow.
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Morgan’s Evolutionary Stages Lower barbarism : Began with the art of pottery making. Middle barbarism : Began with domestication of plants and animals in the Old World and irrigation cultivation in the New World.
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Morgan’s Evolutionary Stages Upper barbarism : Began with the smelting of iron and use of iron tools. Civilization : Began with the invention of the phonetic alphabet and writing.
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Savagery The first of three basic stages of cultural evolution in the theory of Lewis Henry Morgan; based on hunting and gathering.
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Barbarism The middle of three basic stages of a nineteenth-century theory developed by Lewis Henry Morgan holding that all cultures evolve from simple to complex systems: savagery, barbarism, and civilization.
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Civilization The last of the stages in the theory of Lewis Henry Morgan. Today, this is a term used by anthropologists to describe any society that has cities.
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Diffusion A theory that stated that certain cultural features were invented originally in one or several parts of the world and then spread to other cultures.
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course ANTHRO 101 taught by Professor Guda during the Spring '11 term at Campbell.

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GROWTH OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY --Comprehensive Version-- Not Presented in Class

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