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Unformatted text preview: 48. (a) Using k = 1/4πε0 , we estimate the ﬁeld at r = 0.02 m using Eq. 23-3:
r2 8.99 × 109 N · m2
C2 45 × 10−12 C
≈ 1 × 103 N/C .
(0.02 m)2 (b) The ﬁeld described by Eq. 23-3 is nonuniform.
(c) As the positively charged bee approaches the grain, a concentration of negative charge is induced on
the closest side of the grain, leading to a force of attraction which makes the grain jump to the bee.
Although in physical contact, it is not in electrical contact with the bee, or else it would acquire
a net positive charge causing it to be repelled from the bee. As the bee (with grain) approaches
the stigma, a concentration of negative charge is induced on the closest side of the stigma which
is presumably highly nonuniform. In some conﬁgurations, the ﬁeld from the stigma (acting on the
positive side of the grain) will overcome the ﬁeld from the bee acting on the negative side, and the
grain will jump to the stigma. ...
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