Chapter04

Chapter04 - Chapter 4 Neurological Considerations for...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Neurological Considerations for Movement Objectives (After reading this chapter, the student will be able to:) Describe the anatomy of a motor unit, including central nervous system pathways, the neuron structure, the neuromuscular junction, and the ratio of fibers to neurons that are innervated. Explain the differences between the three motor unit types (I, IIa, and IIB). Discuss the characteristics of the action potential, emphasizing how a twitch or tetanus develops, as well as the influence of local graded potentials. Describe the pattern of motor unit contribution to a muscle contraction through discussion of the size principle, synchronization, recruitment and rate coding of the motor unit activity. Discuss the components of a reflex action and provide examples. Describe the anatomy of the muscle spindle and the functional characteristics of the spindle during a stretch of the muscle or during gamma motoneuron influence. Objectives (After reading this chapter, the student will be able to:) Describe the anatomy of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO) and explain how the GTO responds to tension in the muscle. Discuss the effect of exercise and training on neural input and activation levels in the muscle. Identify the factors that influence flexibility and provide examples of specific stretching techniques that are successful in enhancing flexibility. Discuss the components of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Describe a plyometric exercise, detailing the neurological and structural contributions to the exercise. Explain what electromyography is, how increasing muscle force affects it, how to record it, and its limitations. General Organization of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain, spinal cord Where human movement is initiated, controlled, and monitored Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Branching nerves outside of spinal cord Neuron Functional unit of the nervous system Motor neurons Carry signals to muscle General Organization of the Nervous System FIGURE 4-1 The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of all of the nerves that lie outside the spinal cord. The 31 pairs of spinal nerves exit and enter the spinal cord at the various vertebral levels servicing specific regions of the body. Motor information leaves the spinal cord through the ventral root (anterior), and sensory information enters the spinal cord through the dorsal root (posterior). Co1 General Organization of the Nervous System Spinal Nerve Area Supplied Cervicaleight pairs Back of the head, neck and shoulders, arms and hands, and diaphragm Thoracic12 pairs Chest, some muscles of the back, and parts of the abdomen Lumbarfive pairs Lower parts of the abdomen and back, the buttocks, some parts of the external genital organs, and...
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Chapter04 - Chapter 4 Neurological Considerations for...

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