Chapter08

Chapter08 - Chapter 8 Linear Kinematics Objectives •...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Linear Kinematics Objectives • Describe how kinematic data are collected. • Distinguish between vectors and scalars. • Discuss the relationship among the kinematic parameters of position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration. • Distinguish between average and instantaneous quantities. • Conduct a numerical calculation of velocity and acceleration using the first central difference method. • Conduct a numerical calculation of the area under a parameter-time curve. • Discuss various research studies that have used a linear kinematic approach. • Demonstrate knowledge of the three equations of constant acceleration. Linear Kinematics • Kinematics describes spatial and temporal components of motion. • Linear kinematics deals with rectilinear (straight line) and curvilinear motion. FIGURE 8-1 Types of translational motion. A. Straight-line or rectilinear motion. B. Curvilinear motion. In both A and B, the motion from A 1 to A 2 and B 1 to B 2 is the same and occurs in the same amount of time. Linear Kinematics Linear Kinematics Linear – translational - motion Collection of Kinematic Data • Data acquisition for quantitative analysis can take many forms. – Accelerometers (measure acceleration directly) – Photographs (may be suitable for static analysis) – High-speed video or optoelectric systems • Velocity and acceleration can be analyzed from digital positional data. Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 8-2 A. A two-dimensional reference system that defines the motion of all digitized points in a frame. B. A two-dimensional reference system placed at the knee joint center with the y-axis defining the long axis of the tibia. Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 8-3 The quadrants and signs of the coordinates in a two-dimensional coordinate system. • Two dimensions are adequate for simple planar movements. • Three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system must be used for more complex movements. – X-Axis – Horizontal (sagittal plane) – Y-Axis – Vertical – Z-Axis – Medial/Lateral • Some researchers use Z for the vertical axis and X and Y for the horizontal axes. Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 8-4 A three-dimensional coordinate system Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 8-5 A two-dimensional coordinate system illustrating the ordered pair of numbers defining a point relative to the origin. Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 8-5 A runner marked for a sagittal kinematic analysis of the right leg. • Knowledge of the temporal patterns of a movement is critical in a kinematic analysis since changes in position occur over time....
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course KIN 3502 taught by Professor Porter during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter08 - Chapter 8 Linear Kinematics Objectives •...

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