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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Linear Kinematics Objectives • Describe how kinematic data are collected. • Distinguish between vectors and scalars. • Discuss the relationship among the kinematic parameters of position, displacement, velocity, and acceleration. • Distinguish between average and instantaneous quantities. • Conduct a numerical calculation of velocity and acceleration using the first central difference method. • Conduct a numerical calculation of the area under a parametertime curve. • Discuss various research studies that have used a linear kinematic approach. • Demonstrate knowledge of the three equations of constant acceleration. Linear Kinematics • Kinematics describes spatial and temporal components of motion. • Linear kinematics deals with rectilinear (straight line) and curvilinear motion. FIGURE 81 Types of translational motion. A. Straightline or rectilinear motion. B. Curvilinear motion. In both A and B, the motion from A 1 to A 2 and B 1 to B 2 is the same and occurs in the same amount of time. Linear Kinematics Linear Kinematics Linear – translational  motion Collection of Kinematic Data • Data acquisition for quantitative analysis can take many forms. – Accelerometers (measure acceleration directly) – Photographs (may be suitable for static analysis) – Highspeed video or optoelectric systems • Velocity and acceleration can be analyzed from digital positional data. Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 82 A. A twodimensional reference system that defines the motion of all digitized points in a frame. B. A twodimensional reference system placed at the knee joint center with the yaxis defining the long axis of the tibia. Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 83 The quadrants and signs of the coordinates in a twodimensional coordinate system. • Two dimensions are adequate for simple planar movements. • Threedimensional (3D) coordinate system must be used for more complex movements. – XAxis – Horizontal (sagittal plane) – YAxis – Vertical – ZAxis – Medial/Lateral • Some researchers use Z for the vertical axis and X and Y for the horizontal axes. Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 84 A threedimensional coordinate system Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 85 A twodimensional coordinate system illustrating the ordered pair of numbers defining a point relative to the origin. Collection of Kinematic Data Reference Systems FIGURE 85 A runner marked for a sagittal kinematic analysis of the right leg. • Knowledge of the temporal patterns of a movement is critical in a kinematic analysis since changes in position occur over time....
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course KIN 3502 taught by Professor Porter during the Spring '08 term at LSU.
 Spring '08
 porter

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