3 - Review Electronegativity electronegativity(EN the...

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Review: Electronegativity electronegativity (EN): the measure of the ability of a bonded atom (or functional group) to attract electrons toward itself. • EN increases as you move up and to the right in the periodic table • as you move up a column, shielding of outer electrons decreases • as you move to the right in a column, the nuclear charge increases H 2.2 L i B e B C N O F 1.0 1.6 2.0 2.6 3.0 3.4 4.0 Pauling value Ch 1b scale N a M g A l S i P S C l 0.9 1.25 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 3.2 Pauling value Ch 1b scale K B r 0.8 3.0 I 2.7 The Ch1b Electronegativity Chart:
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Functional Groups Functional groups : the substitution of carbon chains with atoms other than C and H • substitution with more electronegative atoms results in a formal “oxidation” of the carbon • the oxidation level of a given carbon can be assigned by the number of bonds to more electronegative atoms • functional groups can be organized according to their oxidation level alkane oxidation level alcohol oxidation level aldehyde oxidation level acid oxidation level carbonic acid oxidation level –2 e - oxidation +2 e - reduction –2 e - oxidation +2 e - reduction –2 e - oxidation +2 e - reduction –2 e - oxidation +2 e - reduction for nomenclature guidelines, see RC Ch.7
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Functional Groups Functional groups : the substitution of carbon chains with atoms other than C and H • some common functional groups are shown below for nomenclature guidelines, see RC Ch.7 alkane oxidation level propane BH 2 ethyl borane SiH 3 ethyl silane sometimes alkyl groups are generically designated as "R" alcohol oxidation level OH ethanol (ethyl alcohol) SH ethane thiol O diethylether NH 2 ethyl amine N H N , N -diethyl amine S diethylsulfide N H N , N,N -triethyl amine Cl ethyl chloride I
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