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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8
Conservation of Linear Momentum
Conceptual Problems
1
•
[SSM] Show that if two particles have equal kinetic energies, the
magnitudes of their momenta are equal only if they have the same mass.
Determine the Concept The kinetic energy of a particle, as a function of its
momentum, is given by K = p 2 2m .
The kinetic energy of the particles is
given by: 2
p12
p2
K1 =
and K 2 =
2m1
2m 2 Equate these kinetic energies to
obtain: p12
p2
=2
2m1 2m2 Because the magnitudes of their
momenta are equal: 1
1
=
and m1 = m2
m1 m2 2
•
Particle A has twice the (magnitude) momentum and four times the
kinetic energy of particle B. A also has four times the kinetic energy of B. What is
the ratio of their masses (the mass of particle A to that of particle B)? Explain
your reasoning.
Determine the Concept The kinetic energy of a particle, as a function of its
momentum, is given by K = p 2 2m . The kinetic energy of particle A is
given by: KA = 2
pA
p2
⇒ mA = A
2 mA
2K A The kinetic energy of particle B is
given by: KB = 2
pB
p2
⇒ mB = B
2 mB
2K B Divide the first of these equations by
the second and simplify to obtain: 2
pA
2
2
mA 2 K A K B p A K B ⎛ p A ⎞
⎟
⎜
= 2=
=
2
mB
K A pB K A ⎜ pB ⎟
pB
⎠
⎝
2K B 721 722 Chapter 8
Because particle A has twice the
(magnitude) momentum of particle B
and four times as much kinetic
energy: 2 mA
K ⎛ 2p ⎞
= B ⎜ B⎟ = 1
mB 4 K B ⎜ p B ⎟
⎠
⎝ 3
•
Using SI units, show that the units of momentum squared divided by
those of mass is equivalent to the joule.
Determine the Concept The SI units of momentum are kg⋅m/s. Express the ratio of the square of the
units of momentum to the units of
mass: m⎞
⎛
⎜ kg ⋅ ⎟
s⎠
⎝
kg 2 Simplify to obtain:
2 m⎞
⎛
m2
⎜ kg ⋅ ⎟
kg 2 ⋅ 2
2
s⎠
⎝
s = kg ⋅ m = ⎛ kg ⋅ m ⎞ ⋅ m = N ⋅ m = J
=
⎟
⎜
s2 ⎠
s2 ⎝
kg
kg
True or false: 4 • (a) The total linear momentum of a system may be conserved even when the
mechanical energy of the system is not.
For the total linear momentum of a system to be conserved, there must be no
external forces acting on the system.
The velocity of the center of mass of a system changes only when there is a
net external force on the system. (b)
( c) (a) True. Consider the collision of two objects of equal mass traveling in opposite
directions with the same speed. Assume that they collide inelastically. The
mechanical energy of the system is not conserved (it is transformed into other
forms of energy), but the momentum of the system is the same after the collision
as before the collision; that is, zero. Therefore, for any inelastic collision, the
momentum of a system may be conserved even when mechanical energy is not.
(b) False. The net external force must be zero if the linear momentum of the
system is to be conserved.
(c) True. This nonzero net force accelerates the center of mass. Hence its velocity
changes. Conservation of Linear Momentum 723
5
•
If a bullet is fired due west, explain how conservation of linear
momentum enables you to predict that the recoil of the rifle be exactly due east. Is
kinetic energy conserved here?
Determine the Concept The momentum of the bulletgun system is initially zero.
After firing, the bullet’s momentum is directed west. Momentum conservation
requires that the system’s total momentum does not change, so the gun’s
momentum must be directed east. Kinetic energy is not conserved. Some of the
initial chemical energy of the gun powder, for example, is transformed into
thermal energy and sound energy.
6
•
A child jumps from a small boat to a dock. Why does she have to jump
with more effort than she would need if she were jumping through an identical
displacement, but from a boulder to a tree stump?
Determine the Concept When she jumps from a boat to a dock, she must, in
order for momentum to be conserved, give the boat a recoil momentum, that is,
her forward momentum must be the same as the boat’s backward momentum.
When she jumps through an identical displacement from a boulder to a tree
stump, the mass of the boulder plus Earth is so large that the momentum she
imparts to them is essentially zero.
7
••
[SSM] Much early research in rocket motion was done by Robert
Goddard, physics professor at Clark College in Worcester, Massachusetts. A
quotation from a 1920 editorial in the New York Times illustrates the public
opinion of his work: ″That Professor Goddard with his ′chair′ at Clark College
and the countenance of the Smithsonian Institution does not know the relation
between action and reaction, and the need to have something better than a vacuum
against which to react—to say that would be absurd. Of course, he only seems to
lack the knowledge ladled out daily in high schools.″ The belief that a rocket
needs something to push against was a prevalent misconception before rockets in
space were commonplace. Explain why that belief is wrong.
Determine the Concept In a way, the rocket does need something to push upon.
It pushes the exhaust in one direction, and the exhaust pushes it in the opposite
direction. However, the rocket does not push against the air. Another way to
look at this is conservation of momentum. The momentum of the exhaust is
equal and opposite to the momentum of the rocket, so momentum is conserved.
8
•
Two identical bowling balls are moving with the same centerofmass
velocity, but one just slides down the alley without rotating, whereas the other
rolls down the alley. Which ball has more kinetic energy?
2
Determine the Concept The kinetic energy of the sliding ball is 1 mvcm . The
2 2
kinetic energy of the rolling ball is 1 mvcm + K rel , where K rel is its kinetic energy
2 724 Chapter 8
relative to its center of mass. Because the bowling balls are identical and have
the same velocity, the rolling ball has more kinetic energy. There is no problem
here because the relationship K = p 2 2m is between the center of mass kinetic
energy of the ball and its linear momentum.
9
•
A philosopher tells you, ″Changing motion of objects is impossible.
Forces always come in equal but opposite pairs. Therefore, all forces cancel out.
Because forces cancel, the momenta of objects can never be changed.″ Answer
his argument.
Determine the Concept Think of someone pushing a box across a floor. Her
push on the box is equal but opposite to the push of the box on her, but the action
and reaction forces act on different objects. Newton’s second law is that the sum
of the forces acting on the box equals the rate of change of momentum of the box.
This sum does not include the force of the box on her.
10 •
A moving object collides with a stationary object. Is it possible for
both objects to be at rest immediately after the collision? (Assume any external
forces acting on this twoobject system are negligibly small.) Is it possible for one
object to be at rest immediately after the collision? Explain.
Determine the Concept It’s not possible for both to remain at rest after the
collision, as that wouldn't satisfy the requirement that momentum is conserved. It
is possible for one to remain at rest. This is what happens for a onedimensional
collision of two identical particles colliding elastically.
11 •
Several researchers in physics education claim that part of the cause of
physical misconceptions amongst students comes from special effects they
observe in cartoons and movies. Using the conservation of linear momentum,
how would you explain to a class of high school physics students what is
conceptually wrong with a superhero hovering at rest in midair while tossing
massive objects such as cars at villains? Does this action violate conservation of
energy as well? Explain.
Determine the Concept Hovering in midair while tossing objects violates the
conservation of linear momentum! To throw something forward requires being
pushed backward. Superheroes are not depicted as experiencing this backward
motion that is predicted by conservation of linear momentum. This action does
not violate the conservation of energy.
12 ••
A struggling physics student asks ″If only external forces can cause the
center of mass of a system of particles to accelerate, how can a car move? Doesn’t
the car’s engine supply the force needed to accelerate the car? ″ Explain what
external agent produces the force that accelerates the car, and explain how the
engine makes that agent do so. Conservation of Linear Momentum 725
Determine the Concept There is only one force which can cause the car to move
forward−the friction of the road! The car’s engine causes the tires to rotate, but if
the road were frictionless (as is closely approximated by icy conditions) the
wheels would simply spin without the car moving anywhere. Because of friction,
the car’s tire pushes backwards against the road and the frictional force acting on
the tire pushes it forward. This may seem odd, as we tend to think of friction as
being a retarding force only, but it is true.
13 •• When we push on the brake pedal to slow down a car, a brake pad is
pressed against the rotor so that the friction of the pad slows the rotation of the
rotor and thus the rotation of the wheel. However, the friction of the pad against
the rotor can’t be the force that slows the car down, because it is an internal
force—both the rotor and the wheel are parts of the car, so any forces between
them are internal, not external, forces. What external agent exerts the force that
slows down the car? Give a detailed explanation of how this force operates.
Determine the Concept The frictional force by the road on the tire causes the car
to slow. Normally the wheel is rotating at just the right speed so both the road
and the tread in contact with the road are moving backward at the same speed
relative to the car. By stepping on the brake pedal, you slow the rotation rate of
the wheel. The tread in contact with the road is no longer moving as fast, relative
to the car, as the road. To oppose the tendency to skid, the tread exerts a forward
frictional force on the road and the road exerts an equal and opposite force on the
tread.
14 •
Explain why a circus performer falling into a safety net can survive
unharmed, while a circus performer falling from the same height onto the hard
concrete floor suffers serious injury or death. Base your explanation on the
impulsemomentum theorem.
Determine the Concept Because Δp = FΔt is constant, the safety net reduces the
force acting on the performer by increasing the time Δt during which the slowing
force acts.
15 ••
[SSM] In Problem 14, estimate the ratio of the collision time with
the safety net to the collision time with the concrete for the performer falling from
a height of 25 m. Hint: Use the procedure outlined in Step 4 of the ProblemSolving Strategy located in Section 83.
Determine the Concept The stopping time for the performer is the ratio of the
distance traveled during stopping to the average speed during stopping. 726 Chapter 8
Letting dnet be the distance the net
gives on impact, dconcrete the distance
the concrete gives, and vav, with net and
vav,without net the average speeds during
stopping, express the ratio of the
impact times:
Assuming constant acceleration, the
average speed of the performer
during stopping is given by: d net
r= v
Δt net
= av, with net
d concrete
Δt concrete
vav, without net (1) vf + v
2
or, because vf = 0 in both cases,
vav = 1 v
2
vav = where v is the impact speed.
Substituting in equation (1) and
simplifying yields: Assuming that the net gives about
1 m and concrete about 0.1 mm
yields: r= r= d net
1
2v
d concrete
1
2v = d net
d concrete 1m
≈ 10 4
0.1 mm 16 ••
(a) Why does a drinking glass survive a fall onto a carpet but not onto
a concrete floor? (b) On many race tracks, dangerous curves are surrounded by
massive bails of hay. Explain how this setup reduces the chances of car damage
and driver injury.
Determine the Concept In both (a) and (b), longer impulse times
(Impulse = FavΔt) are the result of collisions with a carpet and bails of hay. The
average force on a drinking glass or a car is reduced (nothing can be done about
the impulse, or change in linear momentum, during a collision but increasing the
impulse time decreases the average force acting on an object) and the likelihood
of breakage, damage or injury is reduced.
17 • True or false: (a) Following any perfectly inelastic collision, the kinetic energy of the system
is zero after the collision in all inertial reference frames.
(b) For a headon elastic collision, the relative speed of recession equals the
relative speed of approach.
(c) During a perfectly inelastic headon collision with one object initially at rest,
only some of the system’s kinetic energy is dissipated. Conservation of Linear Momentum 727
(d) After a perfectly inelastic headon collision along the eastwest direction, the
two objects are observed to be moving west. The initial total system
momentum was, therefore, to the west. (a) False. Following a perfectly inelastic collision, the colliding bodies stick
together but may or may not continue moving, depending on the momentum
each brings to the collision.
(b) True. For a headon elastic collision both kinetic energy and momentum are
conserved and the relative speeds of approach and recession are equal.
(c) True. This is the definition of an inelastic collision.
(d) True. The linear momentum of the system before the collision must be in the
same direction as the linear momentum of the system after the collision.
18 •• Under what conditions can all the initial kinetic energy of an isolated
system consisting of two colliding objects be lost in a collision? Explain how this
result can be, and yet the momentum of the system can be conserved.
Determine the Concept If the collision is perfectly inelastic, the bodies stick
together and neither will be moving after the collision. Therefore, the final
kinetic energy will be zero and all of it will have been lost (that is, transformed
into some other form of energy). Momentum is conserved because in an isolated
system the net external force is zero.
19 ••
Consider a perfectly inelastic collision of two objects of equal mass.
(a) Is the loss of kinetic energy greater if the two objects are moving in opposite
directions, each moving at speed v/2, or if one of the two objects is initially at rest
and the other has an initial speed of v? (b) In which of these situations is the
percentage loss in kinetic energy the greatest?
Determine the Concept We can find the loss of kinetic energy in these two
collisions by finding the initial and final kinetic energies. We’ll use conservation
of momentum to find the final velocities of the two masses in each perfectly
elastic collision. (a) Letting V represent the velocity
of the masses after their perfectly
inelastic collision, use conservation
of momentum to determine V: pbefore = pafter
or
mv − mv = 2mV ⇒ V = 0 728 Chapter 8
Express the loss of kinetic energy for
the case in which the two objects
have oppositely directed velocities of
magnitude v/2: ⎛ ⎛ v ⎞2 ⎞
ΔK = K f − K i = 0 − 2⎜ 1 m⎜ ⎟ ⎟
⎜2 ⎝2⎠ ⎟
⎝
⎠
2
= − 1 mv
4 Letting V represent the velocity of
the masses after their perfectly
inelastic collision, use conservation
of momentum to determine V: pbefore = pafter Express the loss of kinetic energy
for the case in which the one object
is initially at rest and the other has
an initial velocity v: or
mv = 2mV ⇒ V = 1 v
2
ΔK = K f − K i
2 ⎛v⎞
= (2m )⎜ ⎟ − 1 mv 2 = − 1 mv 2
2
4
⎝2⎠
1
2 The loss of kinetic energy is the same in both cases.
(b) Express the percentage loss for
the case in which the two objects
have oppositely directed velocities
of magnitude v/2: 2
1
ΔK
4 mv
= 1 2 = 100%
K before 4 mv Express the percentage loss for the
case in which the one object is
initially at rest and the other has an
initial velocity v: 2
1
ΔK
4 mv
=
= 50%
K before 1 mv 2
2 The percentage loss is greatest for the case in which the two objects have
oppositely directed velocities of magnitude v/2.
20 ••
A doublebarreled pea shooter is shown in Figure 841. Air is blown
into the left end of the pea shooter, and identical peas A and B are positioned
inside each straw as shown. If the pea shooter is held horizontally while the peas
are shot off, which pea, A or B, will travel farther after leaving the straw?
Explain. Base your explanation on the impulse–momentum theorem.
Determine the Concept Pea A will travel farther. Both peas are acted on by the
same force, but pea A is acted on by that force for a longer time. By the impulsemomentum theorem, its momentum (and, hence, speed) will be higher than pea
B’s speed on leaving the shooter. Conservation of Linear Momentum 729
21 ••
A particle of mass m1 traveling with a speed v makes a headon elastic
collision with a stationary particle of mass m2. In which scenario will the largest
amount of energy be imparted to the particle of mass m2? (a) m2 < m1,
(b) m2 = m1, (c) m2 > m1, (d) None of the above.
Determine the Concept Refer to the particles as particle 1 and particle 2. Let the
direction particle 1 is moving before the collision be the positive x direction.
We’ll use both conservation of momentum and conservation of mechanical
energy to obtain an expression for the velocity of particle 2 after the collision.
Finally, we’ll examine the ratio of the final kinetic energy of particle 2 to that of
particle 1 to determine the condition under which there is maximum energy
transfer from particle 1 to particle 2. Use conservation of momentum to
obtain one relation for the final
velocities:
Use conservation of mechanical
energy to set the velocity of
recession equal to the negative of
the velocity of approach: m1v1,i = m1v1,f + m2 v 2,f (1) v 2,f − v1,f = −(v 2,i − v1,i ) = v1,i (2) To eliminate v1,f, solve equation (2)
for v1,f, and substitute the result in
equation (1): v1,f = v 2,f + v1,i Solve for v2,f to obtain: v 2,f = Express the ratio R of K2,f to K1,i in
terms of m1 and m2: m1v1, i = m1 (v2, f − v1,i ) + m2v2, f 2 R=
= Differentiate this ratio with respect
to m2, set the derivative equal to
zero, and obtain the quadratic
equation: 2m1
v1,i
m1 + m2 − K 2,f
K1,i ⎛ 2m1 ⎞ 2
m2 ⎜
⎜ m + m ⎟ v1,i
⎟
2⎠
⎝1
=
2
1
2 m1v1,i
1
2 m2
4m12
m1 (m1 + m2 )2 2
m2
+1 = 0
m12 730 Chapter 8
Solve this equation for m2 to
determine its value for maximum
energy transfer: (b ) m 2 = m1 is correct because all of particle 1’s kinetic energy is transferred to particle 2 when m2 = m1 .
22 •• Suppose you are in charge of an accidentreconstruction team which
has reconstructed an accident in which a car was ″rearended″ causing the two
cars to lock bumpers and skid to a halt. During the trial, you are on the stand as
an expert witness for the prosecution and the defense lawyer claims that you
wrongly neglected friction and the force of gravity during the fraction of a second
while the cars collided. Defend your report. Why were you correct in ignoring
these forces? You did not ignore these two forces in your skid analysis both
before and after the collision. Can you explain to the jury why you did not ignore
these two forces during the pre and postcollision skids?
Determine the Concept You only used conservation of linear momentum for a
fraction of a second of actual contact between the cars. Over that short time,
friction and other external forces can be neglected. In the long run, over the
duration of the accident, they cannot.
23 •• Nozzles for a garden hose are often made with a rightangle shape as
shown in Figure 842. If you open the nozzle and spray water out, you will find
that the nozzle presses against your hand with a pretty strong force—much
stronger than if you used a nozzle not bent into a right angle. Why is this situation
true?
Determine the Concept The water is changing direction when it rounds the
corner in the nozzle. Therefore, the nozzle must exert a force on the stream of
water to change its momentum, and from Newton’s third law, the water exerts an
equal but opposite force on the nozzle. This requires a net force in the direction of
the momentum change. Conceptual Problems from Optional Sections
24 ••
Describe a perfectly inelastic headon collision between two stunt cars
as viewed in the centerofmass reference frame.
Determine the Concept In the centerofmass reference frame the two objects
approach with equal but opposite momenta and remain at rest after the collision. Conservation of Linear Momentum 731
25 ••
One airhockey puck is initially at rest. An identical airhockey puck
collides with it, striking it with a glancing blow. Assume the collision was elastic
and neglect any rotational motion of the pucks. Describe the collision in the
centerofmass frame of the pucks.
Determine the Concept In the centerofmass frame the two velocities are equal
and opposite, both before and after the collision. In addition, the speed of each
puck is the same before and after the collision. The direction of the velocity of
each puck changes by some angle during the collision.
26 ••
A baton with one end more massive than the other is tossed at an angle
into the air. (a) Describe the trajectory of the center of mass of the baton in the
reference frame of the ground. (b) Describe the motion of the two ends of the
baton in the centerofmass frame of the baton.
Determine the Concept
(a) In the centerofmass frame of the ground, the center of mass moves in a
parabolic arc. (b) Relative to the center of mass, each end of the baton would describe a circular
path. The more massive end of the baton would travel in the circle with the
smaller radius because it is closer to the location of the center of mass.
27 ••
Describe the forces acting on a descending Lunar lander as it fires its
retrorockets to slow it down for a safe landing. (Assume the lander’s mass loss
during the rocket firing is not negligible.)
Determine the Concept The forces acting on a descending Lunar lander are the
downward force of lunar gravity and the upward thrust provided by the rocket
engines.
28 ••
A railroad car rolling along by itself is passing by a grain elevator,
which is dumping grain into it at a constant rate. (a) Does momentum
conservation imply that the railroad car should be slowing down as it passes the
grain elevator? Assume that the track is frictionless and perfectly level and that
the grain is falling vertically. (b) If the car is slowing down, this situation implies
that there is some external force acting on the car to slow it down. Where does
this force come from? (c) After passing the elevator, the railroad car springs a
leak, and grain starts leaking out of a vertical hole in its floor at a constant rate.
Should the car speed up as it loses mass?
Determine the Concept We can apply conservation of linear momentum and
Newton’s laws of motion to each of these scenarios. (a) Yes, the car should slow down. An easy way of seeing this is to imagine a
"packet" of grain being dumped into the car all at once: This is a completely
inelastic collision, with the packet having an initial horizontal velocity of 0. After 732 Chapter 8
the collision, it is moving with the same horizontal velocity that the car does, so
the car must slow down.
(b) When the packet of grain lands in the car, it initially has a horizontal velocity
of 0, so it must be accelerated to come to the same speed as the car of the train.
Therefore, the train must exert a force on it to accelerate it. By Newton’s third
law, the grain exerts an equal but opposite force on the car, slowing it down. In
general, this is a frictional force which causes the grain to come to the same speed
as the car.
(c) No it dos not speed up. Imagine a packet of grain being "dumped" out of the
railroad car. This can be treated as a collision, too. It has the same horizontal
speed as the railroad car when it leaks out, so the train car doesn’t have to speed
up or slow down to conserve momentum.
29 ••• [SSM] To show that even really intelligent people can make
mistakes, consider the following problem which was asked of a freshman class at
Caltech on an exam (paraphrased): A sailboat is sitting in the water on a windless
day. In order to make the boat move, a misguided sailor sets up a fan in the back
of the boat to blow into the sails to make the boat move forward. Explain why the
boat won’t move. The idea was that the net force of the wind pushing the sail
forward would be counteracted by the force pushing the fan back (Newton’s third
law). However, as one of the students pointed out to his professor, the sailboat
could in fact move forward. Why is that?
Determine the Concept Think of the sail facing the fan (like the sail on a square
rigger might), and think of the stream of air molecules hitting the sail. Imagine
that they bounce off the sail elastically−their net change in momentum is then
roughly twice the change in momentum that they experienced going through the
fan. Thus the change in momentum of the air is backward, so to conserve
momentum of the airfanboat system, the change in momentum of the fanboat
system will be forward. Estimation and Approximation
30 ••
A 2000kg car traveling at 90 km/h crashes into an immovable
concrete wall. (a) Estimate the time of collision, assuming that the center of the
car travels halfway to the wall with constant acceleration. (Use any plausible
length for the car.) (b) Estimate the average force exerted by the wall on the car.
Picture the Problem We can estimate the time of collision from the average
speed of the car and the distance traveled by the center of the car during the
collision. We’ll assume a car length of 6.0 m. We can calculate the average force
exerted by the wall on the car from the car’s change in momentum and its
stopping time. Conservation of Linear Momentum 733 ( 1 Lcar ) =
2 (a) Relate the stopping time to the
assumption that the center of the car
travels halfway to the wall with
constant deceleration: Δt = d stopping Because a is constant, the average
speed of the car is given by: vav = vi + v f
2 Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vav: km
1h
1000 m
×
×
h 3600 s
km
vav =
2
= 12.5 m/s Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) and evaluate Δt: Δt = vav = 1
2 vav 1
4 Lcar
(1)
vav 0 + 90 1
4 (6.0 m ) 12.5 m/s = 0.120 s = 0.12 s (b) Relate the average force exerted by the wall on the car to the car’s change in
momentum:
⎛ Fav = Δp
=
Δt 1h
1000 m ⎞
⎟
×
h 3600 s
km ⎟
⎠ = 4.2 × 10 5 N
0.120 s (2000 kg )⎜ 90 km ×
⎜
⎝ 31 ••
In handpumped railcar races, a speed of 32.0 km/h has been achieved
by teams of four people. A car that has a mass equal to 350 kg is moving at that
speed toward a river when Carlos, the chief pumper, notices that the bridge ahead
is out. All four people (each with a mass of 75.0 kg) simultaneously jump
backward off the car with a velocity that has a horizontal component of 4.00 m/s
relative to the car. The car proceeds off the bank and falls into the water a
horizontal distance of 25.0 m from the bank. (a) Estimate the time of the fall of
the railcar. (b) What is the horizontal component of the velocity of the pumpers
when they hit the ground?
Picture the Problem Let the direction the railcar is moving be the +x direction
and the system include Earth, the pumpers, and the railcar. We’ll also denote the
railcar with the letter c and the pumpers with the letter p. We’ll use conservation
of linear momentum to relate the center of mass frame velocities of the car and
the pumpers and then transform to the Earth frame of reference to find the time
of fall of the car. 734 Chapter 8
(a) Relate the time of fall of the
railcar to the horizontal distance it
travels and its horizontal speed as
it leaves the bank: Δt = Δx
vc (1) r
r
pi = pf Use conservation of momentum to
find the speed of the car relative to
the speed of its center of mass: or
mc uc + mp u p = 0 Relate uc to up and solve for uc: u p − uc = −4.00 m/s
and
u p = uc − 4.00 m/s Substitute for up to obtain: mc uc + mp (u c − 4.00 m/s) = 0
4.00 m/s
m
1+ c
mp Solving for uc yields: uc = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate uc: uc = Relate the speed of the car to its
speed relative to the center of mass
of the system: vc = u c + vcm 4.00 m/s
= 1.846 m/s
350 kg
1+
4(75.0 kg ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate vc:
vc = 1.846 m⎛
km ⎞ ⎛ 1 h ⎞⎛ 1000 m ⎞
⎟⎜
+ ⎜ 32.0
⎟⎜
⎟ = 10.73 m/s
s⎝
h ⎠ ⎜ 3600 s ⎟⎝ km ⎠
⎠
⎝ 25.0 m
= 2.33 s
10.73 m/s Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) and evaluate Δt: Δt = (b) The horizontal velocity of
the pumpers when they hit the
ground is: vp = vc − u p = 10.73 m/s − 4.00 m/s
= 6.7 m/s Conservation of Linear Momentum 735
32 ••
A wooden block and a gun are firmly fixed to opposite ends of a long
glider mounted on a frictionless air track (Figure 843). The block and gun are a
distance L apart. The system is initially at rest. The gun is fired and the bullet
leaves the gun with a velocity vb and impacts the block, becoming imbedded in it.
The mass of the bullet is mb and the mass of the gun–glider–block system is mp.
(a) What is the velocity of the glider immediately after the bullet leaves the gun?
(b) What is the velocity of the glider immediately after the bullet comes to rest in
the block? (c) How far does the glider move while the bullet is in transit between
the gun and the block?
Picture the Problem Let the system include Earth, platform, gun, bullet, and
r
block. Then Fnet,ext = 0 and momentum is conserved within the system. Choose a coordinate system in which the +x direction is the direction of the bullet and let b
and p denote the bullet and platform, respectively.
r
r
pbefore = pafter (a) Apply conservation of linear
momentum to the system just
before and just after the bullet
leaves the gun: or
r
r
0 = pbullet + pglider r
r
Substitute for pbullet and pglider to r
ˆ
0 = m b v b i + mp v p obtain: r
Solving for v p yields: (b) Apply conservation of
momentum to the system just
before the bullet leaves the gun and
just after it comes to rest in the
block: r
m
ˆ
v p = − b vb i
mp
r
r
p before = pafter
or
r
r
0 = pglider ⇒ vglider = 0 (c) Express the distance Δs traveled
by the glider: Δs = vp Δt Express the velocity of the bullet
relative to the glider: vrel = v b − vp = vb +
⎛m
= ⎜1 + b
⎜m
p
⎝ mb
vb
mp ⎞
m + mb
⎟v b = p
vb
⎟
mp
⎠ 736 Chapter 8
Relate the time of flight Δt to L
and vrel: Δt = L
v rel Substitute and simplify to find the distance Δs moved by the glider in time Δt:
⎞
⎛
⎟
⎜
⎛ mb ⎞⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ mb ⎞ ⎜
L
⎟
⎜
⎟
Δs = vp Δt = ⎜
vb ⎟⎜
⎜ v ⎟ = ⎜ m vb ⎟ ⎜ mp + mb ⎟ =
⎟
⎜m
⎟
⎝ p ⎠⎝ rel ⎠ ⎝ p ⎠ ⎜
vb ⎟
⎟
⎜m
p
⎠
⎝ ⎛ mb ⎞
⎜
⎟L
⎜m +m ⎟
p
b⎠
⎝ Conservation of Linear Momentum
33 •
[SSM] Tyrone, an 85kg teenager, runs off the end of a horizontal
pier and lands on a freefloating 150kg raft that was initially at rest. After he
lands on the raft, the raft, with him on it, moves away from the pier at 2.0 m/s.
What was Tyrone’s speed as he ran off the end of the pier?
Picture the Problem Let the system include Earth, the raft, and Tyrone and
apply conservation of linear momentum to find Tyrone’s speed when he ran off
the end of the pier. Apply conservation of linear
momentum to the system consisting
of the raft and Tyrone to obtain: Because the raft is initially at rest: r
r
r
Δpsystem = ΔpTyrone + Δpraft = 0
or, because the motion is onedimensional,
pf,Tyrone − pi , Tyrone + pf,raft − pi,raft = 0
pf,Tyrone − pi , Tyrone + pf,raft = 0 Use the definition of linear momentum to obtain:
mTyrone vf,Tyrone − mTyrone vi,Tyrone + mraft vf,raft = 0
Solve for vi,Tyrone to obtain: vi,Tyrone = Letting v represent the common final
speed of the raft and Tyrone yields: ⎛
⎞
m
vi,Tyrone = ⎜1 + raft ⎟v
⎜m
⎟
Tyrone ⎠
⎝ mraft
vf,raft + vf,Tyrone
mTyrone Conservation of Linear Momentum 737
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vi,Tyrone : ⎛ 150 kg ⎞
⎟ (2.0 m/s )
vi, Tyrone = ⎜1 +
⎜
85 kg ⎟
⎝
⎠
= 5.5 m/s 34 ••
A 55kg woman contestant on a reality television show is at rest at the
south end of a horizontal 150kg raft that is floating in crocodileinfested waters.
She and the raft are initially at rest. She needs to jump from the raft to a platform
that is several meters off the north end of the raft. She takes a running start. When
she reaches the north end of the raft she is running at 5.0 m/s relative to the raft.
At that instant, what is her velocity relative to the water?
Picture the Problem Let the system include the woman, the raft, and Earth.
Then the net external force is zero and linear momentum is conserved as she
jumps off the raft. Let the direction the woman is running be the +x direction. Apply conservation of linear
momentum to the system: r Solving for vraft yields: r ∑m v ii r
r
= mwoman v woman + mraft v raft = 0 r
r
mwoman v woman
v raft = −
mraft Substituting numerical values gives: ⎛ 55 kg ⎞ r
r
⎛ 55 ⎞ r
v raft = −⎜
⎜ 150 kg ⎟v woman = −⎜ 150 ⎟v woman
⎟
⎝
⎠
⎝
⎠ It is given that: r
r
ˆ
v woman − v raft = (5.0 m/s ) i r
Substituting for v raft yields: r
Solve for v woman to obtain: r
⎛ 55
v woman + ⎜
⎝ 150 ⎞r
ˆ
⎟v woman = (5.0 m/s ) i
⎠ ⎛
⎞
⎜ 5.0 m/s ⎟
r
ˆ
⎟i =
v woman = ⎜
55 ⎟
⎜ 1+
⎜
⎟
⎝ 150 ⎠ (3.7 m/s) iˆ 35 •
A 5.0kg object and a 10kg object, both resting on a frictionless table,
are connected by a massless compressed spring. The spring is released and the
objects fly off in opposite directions. The 5.0kg object has a velocity of 8.0 m/s
to the left. What is the velocity of the 10kg object? 738 Chapter 8
Picture the Problem If we include Earth in our system, then the net external
force is zero and linear momentum is conserved as the spring delivers its energy
to the two objects. Choose a coordinate system in which the +x direction is to the
right. Apply conservation of linear
momentum to the system: r
Solving for v10 yields: Substitute numerical values and
r
evaluate v10 : r ∑m v ii r
r
= m5 v 5 + m10 v10 = 0 ⎛ m ⎞r
r
v10 = ⎜ − 5 ⎟v5
⎜m⎟
10 ⎠
⎝
⎡ (5.0 kg )(− 8.0 m/s ) ⎤ ˆ
r
v10 = ⎢−
⎥i
10 kg
⎣
⎦
ˆ
= (4.0 m/s ) i or 4.0 m/s to the right.
36 •
Figure 844 shows the behavior of a projectile just after it has broken
up into three pieces. What was the speed of the projectile the instant before it
broke up? (a) v3. (b) v3/3. (c) v3/4. (d) 4v3. (e) (v1 + v2 + v3)/4.
Picture the Problem This is an explosionlike event in which linear momentum
is conserved. Thus we can equate the initial and final momenta in the x direction
and the initial and final momenta in the y direction. Choose a coordinate system in
the +x direction is to the right and the +y direction is upward. Equate the momenta in the y
direction before and after the
explosion: ∑p y,i = ∑ py,f = mv2 − 2mv1
= m(2v1 ) − 2mv1 = 0 We can conclude that the momentum was entirely in the x direction before the
particle exploded. ∑p = ∑ p x,f Equate the momenta in the x
direction before and after the
explosion: or
4mvprojectile = mv3 Solving for vprojectile yields: vprojectile = 1 v3 and
4 x,i (c ) is correct. Conservation of Linear Momentum 739
37 •
A shell of mass m and speed v explodes into two identical fragments.
If the shell was moving horizontally with respect to Earth, and one of the r
fragments is subsequently moving vertically with speed v, find the velocity v ′ of
the other fragment immediately following the explosion.
Picture the Problem Choose the direction the shell is moving just before the
explosion to be the positive x direction and apply conservation of momentum. Use conservation of momentum to
relate the masses of the fragments to
their velocities: r
r
pi = pf
or
r
r
ˆj
ˆ
mvi = 1 mvˆ + 1 mv ' ⇒ v ' = 2vi − vˆ
j2
2 38 •• During this week’s physics lab, the experimental setup consists of two
gliders on a horizontal frictionless air track (see Figure 845). Each glider
supports a strong magnet centered on top of it, and the magnets are oriented so
they attract each other. The mass of glider 1 and its magnet is 0.100 kg and the
mass of glider 2 and its magnet is 0.200 kg. You and your lab partners take the
origin to be at the left end of the track and to center glider 1 at x1 = 0.100 m and
glider 2 at x2 = 1.600 m. Glider 1 is 10.0 cm long, while glider 2 is 20.0 cm long
and each glider has its center of mass at its geometric center. When the two are
released from rest, they will move toward each other and stick. (a) Predict the
position of the center of each glider when they first touch. (b) Predict the velocity
the two gliders will continue to move with after they stick. Explain the reasoning
behind this prediction for your lab partners.
Picture the Problem Because no external forces act on either glider, the center
of mass of the twoglider system can’t move. We can use the data concerning the
masses and separation of the gliders initially to calculate its location and then
apply the definition of the center of mass a second time to relate the positions x1
and x2 of the centers of the carts when they first touch. We can also use the
separation of the centers of the gliders when they touch to obtain a second
equation in x1 and x2 that we can solve simultaneously with the equation obtained
from the location of the center of mass. (a) The x coordinate of the center of
mass of the 2glider system is given
by: xcm = m1 x1 + m2 x2
m1 + m2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate xcm:
xcm = (0.100 kg )(0.100 m ) + (0.200 kg )(1.600 m ) = 1.10 m 0.100 kg + 0.200 kg
from the left end of the air track. 740 Chapter 8
Because the location of the center
of mass has not moved when two
gliders first touch: 1.10 m = m1 X 1 + m2 X 2
m1 + m2 Substitute numerical values and
simplify to obtain: 1.10 m = 1 X 1 + 2 X 2
3
3 Also, when they first touch, their
centers are separated by half their
combined lengths: X 2 − X1 = Thus we have: X 1 + 2 X 2 = 1.10 m
3
and
X 2 − X 1 = 0.150 m Solving these equations
simultaneously yields: X 1 = 1.00 m and X 2 = 1.15 m 1
2 (10.0 cm + 20.0 cm ) = 0.150 m
1
3 (b) Because the momentum of the system was zero initially, it must be zero just
before the collision and after the collision in which the gliders stick together.
Hence their velocity after the collision must be 0 .
39 ••
Bored, a boy shoots his pellet gun at a piece of cheese that sits on a
massive block of ice. On one particular shot, his 1.2 g pellet gets stuck in the
cheese, causing it to slide 25 cm before coming to a stop. If the muzzle velocity of
the gun is known to be 65 m/s, and the cheese has a mass of 120 g, what is the
coefficient of friction between the cheese and ice?
Picture the Problem Let the system consist of the pellet and the cheese. Then we
can apply the conservation of linear momentum and the conservation of energy
with friction to this inelastic collision to find the coefficient of friction between
the cheese and the ice. Apply conservation of linear
momentum to the system to obtain: Because the cheese is initially at
rest: r
r
r
Δpsystem = Δppellet + Δpcheese = 0
or, because the motion is onedimensional,
pf,pellet − pi,pellet + pf,cheese − pi,cheese = 0
pf,pellet − pi,pellet + pf,cheeset = 0 Conservation of Linear Momentum 741
Letting m represent the mass of the
pellet, M the mass of the cheese, and
v the common final speed of the
pellet and the cheese, use the
definition of linear momentum to
obtain: mv − mvi,pellet + Mv = 0 Solving for v yields: v= Apply the conservation of energy
with friction to the system to obtain: Wext = ΔEmech + ΔE therm Because ΔUg = Kf = 0, and
ΔE therm = fΔs (where Δs is the m
vi,pellet
m+M (1) or, because Wext = 0,
ΔK + ΔU g + ΔE therm = 0
− 1 (m + M )v 2 + fΔs = 0
2 distance the cheese slides on the
ice):
f is given by: f = μ k (m + M )g Substituting for f yields: − 1 (m + M )v 2 + μ k (m + M )gΔs = 0
2 Substitute for v from equation (1) to obtain:
2 ⎛m
⎞
− (m + M )⎜
vi,pellet ⎟ + μ k (m + M )gΔs = 0
⎝m+M
⎠
1
2 Solving for μk yields: 1 ⎛ mvi,pellet ⎞
⎟
⎜
μk =
2 gΔs ⎜ m + M ⎟
⎠
⎝ 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate μk:
⎛ (0.0012 kg )(65 m/s ) ⎞
1
⎟ = 0.084
⎜
μk =
2
2(9.81 m/s )(0.25 m ) ⎜ 0.0012 kg + 0.120 kg ⎟
⎠
⎝
2 40 ••• A wedge of mass M, as shown in Figure 846, is placed on a
frictionless, horizontal surface, and a block of mass m is placed on the wedge,
whose surface is also frictionless. The center of mass of the block moves 742 Chapter 8
downward a distance h, as the block slides from its initial position to the
horizontal floor. (a) What are the speeds of the block and of the wedge, as they
separate from each other and each go their own way? (b) Check your calculation
plausibility by considering the limiting case when M >>m.
Picture the Problem Let the system include Earth, the block, and the wedge and
apply conservation of energy and conservation of linear momentum. Wext = ΔK + ΔU (a) Apply conservation of energy
with no frictional forces to the
system to obtain: or, because Wext = 0,
ΔK + ΔU = 0 Substituting for ΔK and ΔU yields: Kf − Ki + U f −Ui = 0 Because Ki = Uf = 0: Kf −Ui = 0 Letting ″b″ refer to the block and ″w″
to the wedge yields: K b,f + K w,f − U b,i = 0 Substitute for Kb,f, Kw,f, and Ub,i to
obtain: 1
2 Applying conservation of linear
momentum to the system yields: 2
2
mvb + 1 Mvw − mgh = 0
2 (1) r
r
r
Δpsys = Δpb + Δpw = 0
or
r
r
r
r
pb,f − pb,i + pw,f − pw,i = 0 r
r
Because pb,i = pw,i = 0 : r
r
pb,f + pw,f = 0 r
r
Substituting for pb,f and pw,f yields: ˆ
ˆ
− mvb i + Mvw i = 0 or
− mvb + Mvw = 0
Solve for vw to obtain: Substituting for vw in equation (1)
yields:
Solve for vb to obtain: vw = m
vb
M (2)
2 1
2 ⎛m ⎞
2
mvb + 1 M ⎜ vb ⎟ − mgh = 0
2
⎝M ⎠ vb = 2 ghM
M +m (3) Conservation of Linear Momentum 743
Substitute for vb in equation (2) and
simplify to obtain: vw = m
M 2 ghm 2
M (M + m ) = (b) Rewriting equation (3) by
dividing the numerator and
denominator of the radicand by M
yields: vb = 2 ghM
M +m (4) 2 gh
m
1+
M When M >> m: vb = 2 gh Rewriting equation (4) by dividing
the numerator and denominator of
the radicand by M yields: ⎛m⎞
2 gh⎜ ⎟
⎝M ⎠
vw =
m
1+
M When M >> m: vw = 0 2 These results are exactly what we would expect in this case: The physics is that
of a block sliding down a fixed wedge incline with no movement of the incline. Kinetic Energy of a System of Particles
41 •• [SSM] A 3.0kg block is traveling to the right (the +x direction) at
5.0 m/s, and a second 3.0kg block is traveling to the left at 2.0 m/s. (a) Find the
total kinetic energy of the two blocks. (b) Find the velocity of the center of mass
of the twoblock system. (c) Find the velocity of each block relative to the center
of mass. (d) Find the kinetic energy of the blocks relative to the center of mass.
(e) Show that your answer for Part (a) is greater than your answer for Part (d) by
an amount equal to the kinetic energy associated with the motion of the center of
mass.
Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the +x direction is to
the right. Use the expression for the total momentum of a system to find the
velocity of the center of mass and the definition of relative velocity to express the
sum of the kinetic energies relative to the center of mass. 744 Chapter 8
(a) The total kinetic energy is the
sum of the kinetic energies of the
blocks: 2
K = K1 + K 2 = 1 m1v12 + 1 m2 v2
2
2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate K:
K= 1
2 (3.0 kg )(5.0 m/s)2 + 1 (3.0 kg )(2.0 m/s )2 = 43.5 J =
2 (b) Relate the velocity of the center
of mass of the system to its total
momentum: r
Solving for vcm yields: 44 J r
r
r
Mv cm = m1v1 + m2 v 2 r
r
r
m1v1 + m2 v 2
vcm =
m1 + m2 r
Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm :
r
(3.0 kg )(5.0 m/s) iˆ + (3.0 kg )(− 2.0 m/s ) iˆ = (1.5 m/s) iˆ
vcm =
3.0 kg + 3.0 kg
(c) The velocity of an object relative
to the center of mass is given by:
Substitute numerical values to
obtain: r
rr
v rel = v − v cm
r
ˆ
ˆ
v1,rel = (5.0 m/s ) i − (1.5 m/s ) i (3.5 m/s ) iˆ
r
ˆ
ˆ
v 2,rel = (− 2.0 m/s ) i − (1.5 m/s ) i
= =
(d) Express the sum of the kinetic
energies relative to the center of
mass: (− 3.5 m/s) iˆ 2
K rel = K1,rel + K 2,rel = 1 m1v12,rel + 1 m2v2,rel
2
2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate K rel :
K rel = (e) K cm is given by: 1
2 (3.0 kg )(3.5 m/s)2 + 1 (3.0 kg )(− 3.5 m/s)2 =
2
2
K cm = 1 mtot vcm
2 37 J Conservation of Linear Momentum 745
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate K cm : K cm = 1
2 (6.0 kg )(1.5 m/s)2 = 6.75 J = 43.5 J − 36.75 J
= K − K rel 42 ••
Repeat Problem 41 with the second 3.0kg block replaced by a 5.0kg
block moving to the right at 3.0 m/s.
Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the +x direction is to
the right. Use the expression for the total momentum of a system to find the
velocity of the center of mass and the definition of relative velocity to express the
sum of the kinetic energies relative to the center of mass. (a) The total kinetic energy is the
sum of the kinetic energies of the
blocks: 2
K = K1 + K 2 = 1 m1v12 + 1 m2 v2
2
2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate K:
K= 1
2 (3.0 kg )(5.0 m/s)2 + 1 (5.0 kg )(3.0 m/s)2 = 60.0 J =
2 (b) Relate the velocity of the center
of mass of the system to its total
momentum:
r
Solving for v cm yields: 60 J r
r
r
Mv cm = m1v1 + m2 v 2 r
r
r
m1v1 + m2 v 2
v cm =
m1 + m2 r
Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm :
r
(3.0 kg )(5.0 m/s) iˆ + (5.0 kg ) (3.0 m/s) iˆ = (3.75 m/s) iˆ =
v cm =
3.0 kg + 5.0 kg
(c) The velocity of an object relative
to the center of mass is given by: r
rr
v rel = v − v cm (3.8 m/s) iˆ 746 Chapter 8
Substitute numerical values to
obtain: r
ˆ
ˆ
v1,rel = (5.0 m/s ) i − (3.75 m/s ) i
ˆ
= (1.3 m/s ) i
r
ˆ
ˆ
v 2,rel = (3.0 m/s ) i − (3.75 m/s ) i
ˆ
= (− 0.75 m/s ) i (− 0.8 m/s) iˆ = (d) Express the sum of the kinetic
energies relative to the center of mass: 2
K rel = K1,rel + K 2,rel = 1 m1v12,rel + 1 m2v2,rel
2
2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate K rel :
K rel = 1
2 (3.0 kg )(1.25 m/s )2 + 1 (5.0 kg )(− 0.75 m/s)2 = 3.75 J =
2 (e) K cm is given by: 2
K cm = 1 mtot vcm
2 Substitute numerical values and
evaluate K cm : K cm = 4J 1
2 (8.0 kg )(3.75 m/s)2 ≈ 56.3 J ≈ K − K rel Impulse and Average Force
43 •
[SSM] You kick a soccer ball whose mass is 0.43 kg. The ball
leaves your foot with an initial speed of 25 m/s. (a) What is the magnitude of the
impulse associated with the force of your foot on the ball? (b) If your foot is in
contact with the ball for 8.0 ms, what is the magnitude of the average force
exerted by your foot on the ball?
Picture the Problem The impulse imparted to the ball by the kicker equals the
change in the ball’s momentum. The impulse is also the product of the average
force exerted on the ball by the kicker and the time during which the average
force acts. (a) Relate the magnitude of the
impulse delivered to the ball to its
change in momentum:
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate I: r
I = Δp = pf − pi or, because vi = 0,
I = mvf I = (0.43 kg )(25 m/s ) = 10.8 N ⋅ s
= 11 N ⋅ s Conservation of Linear Momentum 747
(b) The impulse delivered to the ball
as a function of the average force
acting on it is given by: I = Fav Δt ⇒ Fav = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav : Fav = I
Δt 10.8 N ⋅ s
= 1.3 kN
0.0080 s 44 •
A 0.30kg brick is dropped from a height of 8.0 m. It hits the ground
and comes to rest. (a) What is the impulse exerted by the ground on the brick
during the collision? (b) If it takes 0.0013 s from the time the brick first touches
the ground until it comes to rest, what is the average force exerted by the ground
on the brick during impact?
Picture the Problem The impulse exerted by the ground on the brick equals the
change in momentum of the brick and is also the product of the average force
exerted by the ground on the brick and the time during which the average force
acts. (a) Express the magnitude of the
impulse exerted by the ground on the
brick: I = Δpbrick = pf,brick − pi,brick Because pf,brick = 0: I = pi,brick = mbrick v Use conservation of energy to
determine the speed of the brick at
impact: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or Because Uf = Ki = 0: Kf Ui = 0
and
2
1
2 gh
2 mbrick v − mbrick gh = 0 ⇒ v = Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: I = mbrick 2 gh Substitute numerical values and
evaluate I: I = (0.30 kg ) 2 9.81m/s 2 (8.0 m ) (c) The average force acting on the
brick is: Fav = (1) Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 ( = 3.76 N ⋅ s = 3.8 N ⋅ s
I
Δt ) 748 Chapter 8
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav: Fav = 3.76 N ⋅ s
= 2.9 kN
0.0013 s 45 •
A meteorite that has a mass equal to 30.8 tonne (1 tonne = 1000 kg) is
exhibited in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
Suppose that the kinetic energy of the meteorite as it hit the ground was 617 MJ.
Find the magnitude of the impulse I experienced by the meteorite up to the time
its kinetic energy was halved (which took about t = 3.0 s). Find also the average
force F exerted on the meteorite during this time interval.
Picture the Problem The impulse exerted by the ground on the meteorite equals
the change in momentum of the meteorite and is also the product of the average
force exerted by the ground on the meteorite and the time during which the
average force acts. Express the magnitude of the
impulse exerted by the ground on the
meteorite:
Relate the kinetic energy of the
meteorite to its initial momentum
and solve for its initial momentum: r
I = Δpmeteorite = pf − pi Ki = pi2
⇒ pi = 2mK i
2m Express the ratio of the initial and
final kinetic energies of the
meteorite: pi2
p
Ki
p2
= 2m = i2 = 2 ⇒ p f = i
2
Kf
pf
pf
2
2m Substitute in our expression for I
and simplify: I= pi
⎞
⎛1
− pi = pi ⎜
− 1⎟
2
⎝2 ⎠
⎞
⎛1
= 2mK i ⎜
− 1⎟
⎝2 ⎠ Because our interest is in its magnitude, substitute numerical values and evaluate
the absolute value of I:
I= ⎛1
⎞
2 30.8 × 10 3 kg 617 × 10 6 J ⎜
− 1⎟ = 1.81 MN ⋅ s
⎝2 ⎠ ( The average force acting on the
meteorite is: )( ) Fav = I
Δt Conservation of Linear Momentum 749
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav: Fav = 1.81 MN ⋅ s
= 0.60 MN
3.0 s 46 ••
A 0.15kg baseball traveling horizontally is hit by a bat and its
direction exactly reversed. Its velocity changes from +20 m/s to –20 m/s.
(a) What is the magnitude of the impulse delivered by the bat to the ball? (b) If
the baseball is in contact with the bat for 1.3 ms, what is the average force exerted
by the bat on the ball?
Picture the Problem The impulse exerted by the bat on the ball equals the
change in momentum of the ball and is also the product of the average force
exerted by the bat on the ball and the time during which the bat and ball were in
contact. (a) Express the impulse exerted by
the bat on the ball in terms of the
change in momentum of the ball:
Substitute for m and v and
r
evaluate I : r
r
rr
I = Δpball = pf − pi
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
= mv i − − mv i = 2mv i
f ( i ) where v = vf = vi
I = 2(0.15 kg )(20 m/s ) = 6.00 N ⋅ s
= 6.0 N ⋅ s (b) The average force acting on the
ball is: Fav = I
Δt Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav: Fav = 6.00 N ⋅ s
= 4.6 kN
1.3 ms 47 ••
A 60g handball moving with a speed of 5.0 m/s strikes the wall at an
angle of 40º with the normal, and then bounces off with the same speed at the
same angle with the normal. It is in contact with the wall for 2.0 ms. What is the
average force exerted by the ball on the wall? 750 Chapter 8
Picture the Problem The figure shows
the handball just before and
immediately after its collision with the
wall. Choose a coordinate system in
which the +x direction is to the right.
The wall changes the momentum of the
ball by exerting a force on it during the
ball’s collision with it. The reaction to
this force is the force the ball exerts on
the wall. Because these action and
reaction forces are equal in magnitude,
we can find the average force exerted
on the ball by finding the change in
momentum of the ball. Using Newton’s 3rd law, relate the
average force exerted by the ball on
the wall to the average force exerted
by the wall on the ball:
Relate the average force exerted by
the wall on the ball to its change in
momentum: r
r
Fav on wall = − Fav on ball and
Fav on wall = Fav on ball (1) r
r
r
Δp mΔv
Fav on ball =
=
Δt
Δt r
Express Δv in terms of its
components: r
r
r
Δv = Δv x + Δv y
r
or, because Δv y = vf , y ˆ − vi , y ˆ and
j
j
r
r
vf , y = vi , y , Δv = Δv x r
Express Δv x for the ball: r
ˆ
ˆ
Δv x = vf , x i − vi , x i
or, because vi, x = v cosθ and
vf, x = −v cosθ ,
r
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
Δv x = −v cos θ i − v cos θ i = −2v cos θ i Substituting in the expression for
r
Fav on ball yields: r
r
2mv cosθ ˆ
mΔv
=−
Fav on ball =
i
Δt
Δt r
The magnitude of Fav on ball is: Fav on ball = 2mv cosθ
Δt Conservation of Linear Momentum 751
2(0.060 kg )(5.0 m/s )cos40°
2.0 ms
= 0.23 kN Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav on ball: Fav on ball = Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: Fav on wall = 0.23 kN 48 ••
You throw a 150g ball straight up to a height of 40.0 m. (a) Use a
reasonable value for the displacement of the ball while it is in your hand to
estimate the time the ball is in your hand while you are throwing it. (b) Calculate
the average force exerted by your hand while you are throwing it. (Is it OK to
neglect the gravitational force on the ball while it is being thrown?)
Picture the Problem The pictorial
representation shows the ball during
the interval of time during which you
are exerting a force on it to accelerate
it upward. The average force you exert
can be determined from the change in
momentum of the ball. The change in
the velocity of the ball can be found by
applying conservation of mechanical
energy to the ballEarth system once it
has left your hand. t 2 = t1 + Δ t
y2 = d
v2 = ? 2 r
Fav
r
r
Fg = m g t1 = 0
1 m y1 = 0
v1 = 0 Δy (a) Relate the time the ball is in your
hand to its average speed while it is
in your hand and the displacement of
your hand: Δt = Letting Ug = 0 at the initial elevation
of your hand, use conservation of
mechanical energy to relate the
initial kinetic energy of the ball to its
potential energy when it is at its
highest point: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Kf = Ui = 0,
− Ki + U f = 0 Substitute for Kf and Ui and solve
for v2: 2
− 1 mv2 + mgh = 0 ⇒ v2 = 2 gh
2 Because vav, in your hand = 1 v2 :
2 Δt = vav, in your hand Δy
2Δy
=
v2
2 gh 1
2 752 Chapter 8
2(0.70 m ) Assuming the displacement of your
hand is 0.70 m as you throw the ball
straight up, substitute numerical
values and evaluate Δt: Δt = (b) Relate the average force exerted
by your hand on the ball to the
change in momentum of the ball: Δp p 2 − p1
=
Δt
Δt
or, because v1 = p1 = 0,
mv2
Fav =
Δt Substitute for v2 to obtain: Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav: ( ) 2 9.81 m/s 2 (40 m ) = 50.0 ms = 50 ms Fav = Fav = Fav = m 2 gh
Δt (0.15 kg ) ( ) 2 9.81m/s 2 (40 m )
50.0 ms = 84.04 N = 84 N
Express the ratio of the gravitational
force on the ball to the average force
acting on it:
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fg/Fav: Fg
Fav Fg
Fav = mg
Fav (0.15 kg )(9.81m/s2 ) < 2%
=
84.04 N Because the gravitational force acting on the ball is less than 2% of the average
force exerted by your hand on the ball, it is reasonable to have neglected the
gravitational force.
49 ••
A 0.060kg handball is thrown straight toward a wall with a speed of
10 m/s. It rebounds straight backward at a speed of 8.0 m/s. (a) What impulse is
exerted on the wall? (b) If the ball is in contact with the wall for 3.0 ms, what
average force is exerted on the wall by the ball? (c) The rebounding ball is
caught by a player who brings it to rest. During the process, her hand moves back
0.50 m. What is the impulse received by the player? (d) What average force was
exerted on the player by the ball?
Picture the Problem Choose a coordinate system in which the direction the ball
is moving after its collision with the wall is the +x direction. The impulse
delivered to the wall or received by the player equals the change in the
momentum of the ball during these two collisions. We can find the average
forces from the rate of change in the momentum of the ball. Conservation of Linear Momentum 753
(a) The impulse delivered to the
wall is the change in momentum of
the handball:
Substitute numerical values and
r
evaluate I : r
r
r
r
I = Δp = mv f − mv i r
ˆ
I = (0.060 kg )(8.0 m/s ) i [ ˆ
− − (0.060 kg )(10 m/s )i ˆ
ˆ
= (1.08 N ⋅ s ) i = (1.1 N ⋅ s ) i
or 1.1 N⋅s directed into the wall.
(b) Fav is the rate of change of the
ball’s momentum: Fav = Δp
Δt Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav: Fav = 1.08 N ⋅ s
= 360 N
0.0030 s = 0.36 kN, into the wall.
(c) The impulse received by the
player from the change in
momentum of the ball is given by:
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate I:
(d) Relate Fav to the change in the
ball’s momentum:
Express the stopping time in terms
of the average speed vav of the ball
and its stopping distance d: I = Δp ball = mΔv I = (0.060 kg )(8.0 m/s ) = 0.480 N ⋅ s
= 0.48 N ⋅ s, away from the wall.
Fav = Δt = Δp ball
Δt d
vav Substitute for Δt and simplify to
obtain: Fav = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav : Fav = vav Δpball
d (4.0 m/s)(0.480 N ⋅ s )
0.50 m = 3.8 N, away from the wall. 754 Chapter 8
50 ••
A spherical 0.34kg orange, 2.0 cm in radius, is dropped from the top
of a 35 mtall building. After striking the pavement, the shape of the orange is a
0.50 cm thick pancake. Neglect air resistance and assume that the collision is
completely inelastic. (a) How much time did the orange take to completely
″squish″ to a stop? (b) What average force did the pavement exert on the orange
during the collision?
Picture the Problem The following pictorial representation shows the orange
moving with speed v, just before impact, after falling from a height of 35 m. Let
the system be the orange and let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at
the center of mass of the squished orange. The external forces are gravity, acting
on the orange throughout its fall, and the normal force exerted by the ground that
acts on the orange as it is squished. We can find the squishing time from the
displacement of the centerofmass of the orange as it stops and its average speed
during this period of (assumed) constant acceleration. We can use the impulsemomentum theorem to find the average force exerted by the ground on the orange
as it slowed to a stop. y
CM just before
collision R CM of squished
orange Ug = 0 d
w
0 (a) Express the stopping time for the
orange in terms of its average speed
and the distance traveled by its center
of mass: R− 1w
d
2
=
(1)
vav
vav
where w is the thickness of the
pancaked orange. In order to find vav, apply the
conservation of mechanical energy to
the freefall portion of the orange’s
motion: K f − K i + U g,f − U g,i = 0 Substituting for Kf, Ug,f, and Ug,i
yields:
Solving for v yields: Δt = or, because Ki = 0,
K f + U g,f − U g,i = 0
1
2 mv 2 + mgd − mg (h − d ) = 0 d⎞
⎛
v = 2 gh⎜1 − 2 ⎟
h⎠
⎝
or, because d << h,
v ≈ 2 gh Conservation of Linear Momentum 755
Assuming constant acceleration as the
orange squishes: vav = 1 v =
2 Substituting for vav in equation (1)
and simplifying yields: Δt = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Δt: Δt = 1
2 2 gh 2(R − 1 w)
2
2 gh
2[2.0 cm − 1 (0.50 cm )]
2 ( ) 2 9.81 m/s 2 (35 m ) = 1.336 × 10 −3 s = 1.3 ms (b) Apply the impulsemomentum
theorem to the squishing orange to
obtain: r
r
rr
Fav Δt = Δp = pf − pi
or, because pf = 0,
Fav Δt = pi ⇒ Fav = In Part (a) we showed that
vi = v ≈ 2 gh . Therefore:
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav : Fav = Fav = pi mvi
=
Δt Δt m 2 gh
Δt (0.34 kg ) ( ) 2 9.81 m/s 2 (35 m )
1.336 × 10 −3 s ≈ 6.7 kN
51 ••
The polevault landing pad at an Olympic competition contains what is
essentially a bag of air that compresses from its ″resting″ height of 1.2 m down to
0.20 m as the vaulter is slowed to a stop. (a) What is the time interval during
which a vaulter who has just cleared a height of 6.40 m slows to a stop? (b) What
is the time interval if instead the vaulter is brought to rest by a 20 cm layer of
sawdust that compresses to 5.0 cm when he lands? (c) Qualitatively discuss the
difference in the average force the vaulter experiences from the two different
landing pads. That is, which landing pad exerts the least force on the vaulter and
why?
Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the vaulter just before
impact on the landing pad after falling from a height of 6.40 m. In order to
determine the time interval during which the vaulter stops, we have to know his
momentum change and the average net force acting on him. With knowledge of
these quantities, we can use the impulsemomentum equation, Fnet Δt = Δp . We
can determine the average force by noting that as the vaulter comes to a stop on
the landing pad, work is done on him by the airbag. 756 Chapter 8
y 1.2 m r
v d
0.20 m (a) Use the impulsemomentum
theorem to relate the stopping time to
the average force acting on the
vaulter:
Use the workkinetic energy theorem
to obtain: Substituting for Fnet in equation
(1) yields: Solve for Δt to obtain: Use K = p2
to obtain:
2m Rationalizing the denominator of this
expression and simplifying yields: Fnet Δt = Δp Wnet = Fnet d = (Fairbag − mg )d = ΔK
where d is the distance the vaulter
moves while being decelerated. (F airbag − mg )Δt = Δp or
ΔK
Δt = Δp
d
dΔp d ( pf − pi )
=
ΔK
Kf − Ki
or, because Kf = pf = 0,
d (− pi ) pi d
Δt =
=
Ki
− Ki
Δt = Δt = 2mpi d 2md
2md
=
=
2
pi
pi
2mK i Δt = d 2m
Ki (1) Conservation of Linear Momentum 757
K i = mgΔy Ki is equal to the change in the
gravitational potential energy of the
vaulter as he falls a distance Δy
before hitting the airbag:
Substituting for Ki in equation (1)
and simplifying yields: Δt = d 2
gΔy Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δt:
Δt = (1.2 m − 0.2 m ) 2
= 0.198 s = 0.20 s
9.81 m/s (6.4 m − 1.2 m ) ( 2 ) (b) In this case, d1 = 20 cm, d2 = 5.0 cm. Substitute numerical values and evaluate
Δt:
Δt = (0.20 m − 0.05 m ) 2
= 27.2 ms = 27 ms
9.81 m/s (6.4 m − 0.20 m ) ( 2 ) (c) Because the collision time is much shorter for the sawdust landing, the average
force exerted on the vaulter by the airbag is much less than the average force the
sawdust exerts on him.
52 ••• Great limestone caverns have been formed by dripping water. (a) If
water droplets of 0.030 mL fall from a height of 5.0 m at a rate of 10 droplets per
minute, what is the average force exerted on the limestone floor by the droplets of
water during a 1.0min period? (Assume the water does not accumulate on the
floor.) (b) Compare this force to the weight of one water droplet.
Picture the Problem The average force exerted on the limestone by the droplets
of water equals the rate at which momentum is being delivered to the floor.
We’re given the number of droplets that arrive per minute and can use
conservation of mechanical energy to determine their velocity as they reach the
floor. (a) Letting N represent the number
of droplets that fall in a time
interval ∆t, relate Fav to the change
in the droplet’s momentum: Δpdroplets N
mv
(1)
Δt
Δt
where v is their speed after falling
5.0 m from rest.
Fav = = 758 Chapter 8
The mass of the droplets is the
product of their density and volume: m = ρV Letting Ug = 0 at the point of impact
of the droplets, use conservation of
mechanical energy to relate their
speed at impact to their fall distance: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or
Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0 Because Ki = Uf = 0: 1
2 Substitute for m and v in equation
(1) to obtain: Fav = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fav: Fav = 4.95 × 10 −5 N = 50 μN (b) Express the ratio of the weight of
a droplet to Fav: w mg
=
Fav Fav Substitute numerical values and
evaluate w/Fav: w
3 × 10 −5 kg 9.81m/s 2
=
≈6
Fav
4.95 × 10 −5 N mv 2 − mgh = 0 ⇒ v = 2 gh
N
ρV 2 gh
Δt ( )( ) Collisions in One Dimension
53 •
[SSM] A 2000kg car traveling to the right at 30 m/s is chasing a
second car of the same mass that is traveling in the same direction at 10 m/s. (a) If
the two cars collide and stick together, what is their speed just after the collision?
(b) What fraction of the initial kinetic energy of the cars is lost during this
collision? Where does it go?
Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of linear momentum to this
perfectly inelastic collision to find the aftercollision speed of the two cars. The
ratio of the transformed kinetic energy to kinetic energy before the collision is
the fraction of kinetic energy lost in the collision. (a) Letting V be the velocity of the
two cars after their collision, apply
conservation of linear momentum
to their perfectly inelastic collision: pinitial = pfinal
or
mv1 + mv2 = (m + m )V ⇒ V = v1 + v2
2 Conservation of Linear Momentum 759
30 m/s + 10 m/s
= 20 m/s
2 Substitute numerical values and
evaluate V: V= (b) The ratio of the kinetic energy
that is lost to the kinetic energy of
the two cars before the collision is: K − K initial K final
ΔK
= final
=
−1
K initial
K initial
K initial Substitute for the kinetic energies
and simplify to obtain: 1
(2m )V 2
ΔK
= 1 2 2 1 2 −1
K initial 2 mv1 + 2 mv2 =
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate ΔK/Kinitial: 2V 2
−1
2
v12 + v2 ΔK
2(20 m/s )
=
−1
K initial (30 m/s )2 + (10 m/s )2
= −0.20
2 Twenty percent of the initial kinetic energy is transformed into thermal energy,
acoustical energy, and the deformation of the materials from which the car is
constructed.
54 •
An 85kg running back moving at 7.0 m/s makes a perfectly inelastic
headon collision with a 105kg linebacker who is initially at rest. What is the
speed of the players just after their collision?
Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of linear momentum to this
perfectly inelastic collision to find the aftercollision speed of the two players. Letting the subscript 1 refer to the
running back and the subscript 2
refer to the linebacker, apply
conservation of momentum to their
perfectly inelastic collision: pi = p f
or Substitute numerical values and
evaluate V: V= m1v1 = (m1 + m2 )V ⇒ V = m1
v1
m1 + m2 85 kg
(7.0 m/s ) = 3.1m/s
85 kg + 105 kg 55 •
A 5.0kg object with a speed of 4.0 m/s collides headon with a 10kg
object moving toward it with a speed of 3.0 m/s. The 10kg object stops dead after
the collision. (a) What is the postcollision speed of the 5.0kg object? (b) Is the
collision elastic? 760 Chapter 8
Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of linear momentum to this
collision to find the postcollision speed of the 5.0kg object. Let the direction the
5.0kg object is moving before the collision be the positive direction. We can
decide whether the collision was elastic by examining the initial and final kinetic
energies of the system. (a) Letting the subscript 5 refer to the
5.0kg object and the subscript 10
refer to the 10kg object, apply
conservation of momentum to obtain: pi = p f
or
m5vi,5 − m10 vi,10 = m5vf,5 Solve for vf,5: vf,5 = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vf,5: vf,5 = m5vi,5 − m10 vi,10
m5 (5.0 kg )(4.0 m/s) − (10 kg )(3.0 m/s)
5 kg = − 2.0 m/s
where the minus sign means that the
5.0kg object is moving to the left after
the collision.
(b) Evaluate ΔK for the collision:
ΔK = K f − K i = 1
2 (5.0 kg )(2.0 m/s)2 − [1 (5.0 kg )(4.0 m/s)2 + 1 (10 kg )(3.0 m/s)2 ]
2
2 = −75 J Because ΔK ≠ 0, the collision was not elastic.
56 •
A small superball of mass m moves with speed v to the right toward a
much more massive bat that is moving to the left with speed v. Find the speed of
the ball after it makes an elastic headon collision with the bat. Conservation of Linear Momentum 761
Picture the Problem The pictorial
representation shows the ball and bat
just before and just after their collision.
Take the direction the bat is moving to
be the positive direction. Because the
collision is elastic, we can equate the
speeds of recession and approach, with
the approximation that vi,bat ≈ vf,bat to
find vf,ball. Express the speed of approach of the
bat and ball:
Because the mass of the bat is much
greater than that of the ball: vf, bat − vf, ball = −(vi, bat − vi, ball ) vi,bat ≈ vf,bat Substitute to obtain: vf, bat − vf, ball = −(vf, bat − vi, ball ) Solve for and evaluate vf,ball: vf,ball = vf,bat + (vf,bat − vi,ball )
= −vi,ball + 2vf,bat = v + 2v
= 3v 57 ••
A proton that has a mass m and is moving at 300 m/s undergoes a
headon elastic collision with a stationary carbon nucleus of mass 12m. Find the
velocity of the proton and the carbon nucleus after the collision.
Picture the Problem Let the direction the proton is moving before the collision
be the +x direction. We can use both conservation of momentum and conservation
of mechanical energy to obtain an expression for velocities of the proton and the
carbon nucleus after the collision. Use conservation of linear
momentum to obtain one relation for
the final velocities:
Use conservation of mechanical
energy to set the velocity of
recession equal to the negative of the
velocity of approach: mp v p,i = mp v p,f + mnuc v nuc,f (1) v nuc,f − v p,f = −(v nuc,i − v p,i ) = v p,i (2) 762 Chapter 8
To eliminate vnuc,f, solve equation (2)
for vnuc,f, and substitute the result in
equation (1):
Solving for vp,f yields: v nuc,f = v p,i + v p,f
and
mp v p,i = mp v p,f + mnuc (v p,i + v p,f ) vp,f = mp − mnuc
mp + mnuc vp,i 11
m − 12m
vp,i = − vp,i
13
m + 12m Substituting for mp and mnuc and
simplifying yields: vp,f = Substitute the numerical value of vp,i
and evaluate vp,f: 11
(300 m/s) = − 254 m/s
13
where the minus sign tells us that the
velocity of the proton was reversed in
the collision. Solving equation (2) for vnuc,f yields: vnuc,f = vp,i + vp,f Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vnuc,f: vnuc,f = 300 m/s − 254 m/s vp,f = − = 46 m/s, forward 58 ••
A 3.0kg block moving at 4.0 m/s makes a headon elastic collision
with a stationary block of mass 2.0 kg. Use conservation of momentum and the
fact that the relative speed of recession equals the relative speed of approach to
find the velocity of each block after the collision. Check your answer by
calculating the initial and final kinetic energies of each block.
Picture the Problem We can use conservation of momentum and the definition
of an elastic collision to obtain two equations in v2f and v3f that we can solve
simultaneously. Use conservation of momentum to
obtain one relation for the final
velocities:
Use conservation of mechanical
energy to set the speed of recession
equal to the negative of the speed of
approach: m3 v3i = m3 v3f + m2 v 2f (1) v 2f − v3f = −(v 2i − v3i ) = v3i (2) Conservation of Linear Momentum 763
Solve equation (2) for v3f ,
substitute in equation (1) to
eliminate v3f, and solve for v2f to
obtain: v2f = 2m3v3i
m2 + m3 Substitute numerical values and
evaluate v2f: v2f = 2(3.0 kg )(4.0 m/s )
= 4.80 m/s
2.0 kg + 3.0 kg = 4.8 m/s
v3f = v2f − v3i = 4.8 m/s − 4.0 m/s Use equation (2) to find v3f: = 0.8 m/s
Evaluate Ki and Kf:
2
K i = K 3i = 1 m3 v3i =
2 1
2 (3.0 kg )(4.0 m/s)2 = 24 J and
2
2
K f = K 3f + K 2f = 1 m3 v3f + 1 m2 v2f
2
2 = 1
2 (3.0 kg )(0.8 m/s)2 + 1 (2.0 kg )(4.8 m/s)2 = 24 J
2 Because Ki = Kf, we can conclude that the values obtained for v2f and v3f are
consistent with the collision having been elastic.
59 ••
A block of mass m1 = 2.0 kg slides along a frictionless table with a
speed of 10 m/s. Directly in front of it, and moving in the same direction with a
speed of 3.0 m/s, is a block of mass m2 = 5.0 kg. A massless spring that has a
force constant k = 1120 N/m is attached to the second block as in Figure 847.
(a) What is the velocity of the center of mass of the system? (b) During the
collision, the spring is compressed by a maximum amount Δx. What is the value
of Δx? (c) The blocks will eventually separate again. What are the final velocities
of the two blocks measured in the reference frame of the table, after they
separate?
Picture the Problem We can find the velocity of the center of mass from the
definition of the total momentum of the system. We’ll use conservation of
energy to find the maximum compression of the spring and express the initial
(i.e., before collision) and final (i.e., at separation) velocities. Finally, we’ll
transform the velocities from the centerofmass frame of reference to the table
frame of reference. Let the direction the block of mass m1 is moving be the +x
direction. 764 Chapter 8
(a) Use the definition of the total
momentum of a system to relate the
initial momenta to the velocity of the
center of mass: r
r
r
P = ∑ mi vi = Mv cm
i or
r
r
r
m1v1i + m2v 2i = (m1 + m2 ) vcm r
vcm = Solving for vcm gives: m1 r
m2 r
v1i +
v2i
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 r
Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm :
r
⎞
⎞
⎛
2.0 kg
3.0 kg
ˆ⎛
ˆ
vcm = ⎜
⎟
⎜
⎟
⎜ 2.0 kg + 5.0 kg ⎟ (10 m/s ) i + ⎜ 2.0 kg + 5.0 kg ⎟ (3.0 m/s ) i
⎠
⎝
⎠
⎝
ˆ
ˆ
= (5.00 m/s ) i = (5.0 m/s ) i (b) Find the kinetic energy of the
system at maximum compression
(u1 = u2 = 0): 2
K = K cm = 1 Mvcm
2 Use conservation of mechanical
energy to relate the kinetic energy of
the system to the potential energy
stored in the spring at maximum
compression: ΔK + ΔU s = 0
or
K f − K i + U sf − U si = 0 Because Kf = Kcm and Usi = 0: K cm − K i + 1 k (Δx ) = 0
2 = 1
2 (7.0 kg )(5.00 m/s)2 = 87.5 J 2 Solving for Δx yields: [ 2
2
2 1 m1v12i + 1 m2 v2i − K cm
m1v12i + m2 v2i − 2 K cm
2(K i − K cm )
2
2
=
=
Δx =
k
k
k Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δx:
Δx = (2.0 kg )(10 m/s)2 + (5.0 kg )(3.0 m/s)2 − 2(87.5 J ) ⎤ =
1120 N/m 1120 N/m ⎥
⎦ 0.25 m Conservation of Linear Momentum 765
(c) Find u1i, u2i, and u1f for this
elastic collision: u1i = v1i − vcm = 10 m/s − 5 m/s = 5 m/s,
u 2i = v2i − vcm = 3 m/s − 5 m/s = −2 m/s,
and
u1f = v1f − vcm = 0 − 5 m/s = −5 m/s Use conservation of mechanical
energy to set the speed of recession
equal to the negative of the speed of
approach and solve for u2f:
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate u2f:
Transform u1f and u2f to the table
frame of reference: u2f − u1f = −(u2i − u1i )
and
u 2f = −u 2i + u1i + u1f u 2f = −(− 2.0 m/s ) + 5.0 m/s − 5.0 m/s
= 2.0 m/s
v1f = u1f + vcm = −5.0 m/s + 5.0 m/s
=0
and
v2f = u2f + vcm = 2.0 m/s + 5.0 m/s = 7.0 m/s
Express the velocities of the
blocks to obtain: r
r
v1f = 0 and v 2f = (7.0 m/s) iˆ 60 ••
A bullet of mass m is fired vertically from below into a thin horizontal
sheet of plywood of mass M that is initially at rest, supported by a thin sheet of
paper (Figure 848). The bullet punches through the plywood, which rises to a
height H above the paper before falling back down. The bullet continues rising to
a height h above the paper. (a) Express the upward velocity of the bullet and the
plywood immediately after the bullet exits the plywood in terms of h and H.
(b) What is the speed of the bullet? (c) What is the mechanical energy of the
system before and after the inelastic collision? (d) How much mechanical energy
is dissipated during the collision?
Picture the Problem Let the system include Earth, the bullet, and the sheet of
plywood. Then Wext = 0. Choose the zero of gravitational potential energy to be
where the bullet enters the plywood. We can apply both conservation of energy
and conservation of momentum to obtain the various physical quantities called
for in this problem. (a) Use conservation of mechanical
energy after the bullet exits the
sheet of plywood to relate its exit
speed to the height to which it
rises: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Kf = Ui = 0,
2
− 1 mvm + mgh = 0 ⇒ vm =
2 2 gh 766 Chapter 8
Proceed similarly to relate the
initial velocity of the plywood to
the height to which it rises: vM = 2 gH (b) Apply conservation of
momentum to the collision of the
bullet and the sheet of plywood: r
r
pi = pf
or
mvmi = mvm + MvM Substitute for vm and vM and solve
for vmi: vmi = 2 gh + M
m 2 gH (c) Express the initial mechanical
energy of the system (i.e., just
before the collision): 2
Ei = 1 mvmi
2 Express the final mechanical
energy of the system (that is, when
the bullet and block have reached
their maximum heights): Ef = mgh + MgH = g (mh + MH ) (d) Use the workenergy theorem
with Wext = 0 to find the energy
dissipated by friction in the inelastic
collision: Ef − Ei + Wfriction = 0 ⎡
2M
= mg ⎢h +
m
⎢
⎣ 2
⎛M ⎞ ⎤
hH + ⎜ ⎟ H ⎥
⎝m⎠ ⎥
⎦ and
Wfriction = Ei − Ef
⎡hM
⎤
= gMH ⎢2
+
− 1⎥
m
⎣H
⎦ 61 ••
A proton of mass m is moving with initial speed v0 directly toward the
center of an α particle of mass 4m, which is initially at rest. Both particles carry
positive charge, so they repel each other. (The repulsive forces are sufficient to
prevent the two particles from coming into direct contact.) Find the speed vα of
the α particle (a) when the distance between the two particles is a minimum, and
(b) later when the two particles are far apart.
Picture the Problem We can find the speed of the center of mass from the
definition of the total momentum of the system. We’ll use conservation of
energy to find the speeds of the particles when their separation is a minimum and
when they are far apart. (a) Noting that when the distance
between the two particles is a
minimum, both move at the same
speed, namely vcm , use the Conservation of Linear Momentum 767
r
r
r
P = ∑ mi vi = Mv cm
i or
mp vp = (mp + mα )vcm . definition of the total momentum
of a system to relate the initial
momenta to the speed of the center
of mass:
Solve for vcm to obtain: vcm = vα = mp vp + mα vα
mp + mα
mv0 + 0
= 0.2 v0
m + 4m Further simplification yields: vcm = vα = (b) Use conservation of linear
momentum to obtain one relation
for the final speeds: mp v0 = mpvpf + mα vαf (1) vpf − vαf = −(vpi − vαi ) = −vpi (2) Use conservation of mechanical
energy to set the speed of
recession equal to the negative of
the speed of approach:
Solve equation (2) for vpf ,
substitute in equation (1) to
eliminate vpf, and solve for vαf:
Simplifying further yields: vαf = vαf = 2 mp v 0 mp + mα
2mv0
= 0.4 v0
m + 4m 62 ••
An electron collides elastically with a hydrogen atom initially at rest.
Assume all the motion occurs along a straight line. What fraction of the electron’s
initial kinetic energy is transferred to the atom? (Take the mass of the hydrogen
atom to be 1840 times the mass of an electron.)
Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1 denote the electron and the numeral 2 the
hydrogen atom. We can find the final velocity of the electron and, hence, the
fraction of its initial kinetic energy that is transferred to the atom, by transforming
to the centerofmass reference frame, calculating the postcollision velocity of
the electron, and then transforming back to the laboratory frame of reference. 768 Chapter 8
Express f, the fraction of the
electron’s initial kinetic energy that
is transferred to the atom: Find the velocity of the center of
mass: Find the initial velocity of the
electron in the centerofmass
reference frame: f= Ki − Kf
K
=1− f
Ki
Ki ⎛v
m1v12f
=1−
= 1 − ⎜ 1f
2
⎜v
m1v1i
⎝ 1i
1
2
1
2 ⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠ 2 (1) m1v1i
m1 + m2
or, because m2 = 1840m1,
m1v1i
1
vcm =
=
v1i
m1 + 1840m1 1841
vcm = u1i = v1i − vcm = v1i − 1
v1i
1841 1⎞
⎛
= ⎜1 −
⎟v1i
⎝ 1841 ⎠ Find the postcollision velocity of
the electron in the centerofmass
reference frame by reversing its
velocity: ⎛1
⎞
u1f = −u1i = ⎜
− 1⎟v1i
⎝ 1841 ⎠ To find the final velocity of the
electron in the original frame, add
vcm to its final velocity in the centerofmass reference frame: ⎛2
⎞
v1f = u1f + vcm = ⎜
− 1⎟v1i
⎝ 1841 ⎠ Substituting in equation (1) and
simplifying yields: ⎛2
⎞
f = 1− ⎜
− 1⎟ = 0.217%
⎝ 1841 ⎠ 2 63 •• [SSM] A16g bullet is fired into the bob of a 1.5kg ballistic
pendulum (Figure 818). When the bob is at its maximum height, the strings make
an angle of 60° with the vertical. The pendulum strings are 2.3 m long. Find the
speed of the bullet prior to impact.
Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the bullet about to imbed
itself in the bob of the ballistic pendulum and then, later, when the bob plus bullet
have risen to their maximum height. We can use conservation of momentum
during the collision to relate the speed of the bullet to the initial speed of the bob
plus bullet (V). The initial kinetic energy of the bob plus bullet is transformed into
gravitational potential energy when they reach their maximum height. Hence we
apply conservation of mechanical energy to relate V to the angle through which
the bullet plus bob swings and then solve the momentum and energy equations
simultaneously for the speed of the bullet. Conservation of Linear Momentum 769 θ L cos θ m r
vb L Ug = 0 M Use conservation of momentum to
relate the speed of the bullet just
before impact to the initial speed of
the bobbullet: ⎛ M⎞
mvb = (m + M )V ⇒ vb = ⎜1 + ⎟V (1)
m⎠
⎝ Use conservation of energy to relate
the initial kinetic energy of the bobbullet to their final potential energy: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Kf = Ui = 0,
− Ki + U f = 0 Substitute for Ki and Uf to obtain: − 1 (m + M )V 2
2 + (m + M )gL(1 − cosθ ) = 0 Solving for V yields: V = 2 gL(1 − cos θ ) Substitute for V in equation (1) to
obtain: ⎛ M⎞
vb = ⎜1 + ⎟ 2 gL(1 − cos θ )
m⎠
⎝ Substitute numerical values and evaluate vb:
⎛
1.5 kg ⎞
2
v b = ⎜1 +
⎟
⎜ 0.016 kg ⎟ 2 9.81 m/s (2.3 m )(1 − cos60°) = 0.45 km/s
⎠
⎝ ( ) 64 •• Show that in a onedimensional elastic collision, if the mass and
velocity of object 1 are m1 and v1i, and if the mass and velocity of object 2 are m2
and v2i, then their final velocities v1f and v2f are given by
2m 2
2 m1
m − m2
m − m1
v1f = 1
v 1i +
v 2i and v2f =
v1i + 2
v.
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 2i 770 Chapter 8
Picture the Problem We can apply conservation of linear momentum and the
definition of an elastic collision to obtain equations relating the initial and final
velocities of the colliding objects that we can solve for v1f and v2f. Apply conservation of momentum to
the elastic collision of the particles
to obtain:
Use conservation of mechanical
energy to set the speed of recession
equal to the negative of the speed of
approach:
Multiply equation (2) by m2 and
add it to equation (1) to obtain:
Solve for v1f to obtain: Multiply equation (2) by m1 and
subtract it from equation (1) to
obtain:
Solve for v2f to obtain: m1v1f + m2 v2f = m1v1i + m2 v2i (1) v2f − v1f = −(v2i − v1i )
or
v1f − v2f = v2i − v1i (2) (m1 + m2 )v1f = (m1 − m2 )v1i + 2m2v2i
v1 f = m1 − m2
2m2
v1i +
v2 i
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 (m1 + m2 )v2f = (m2 − m1 )v2i + 2m1v1i v2 f = m − m1
2m1
v1i + 2
v 2i
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 Remarks: Note that the velocities satisfy the condition that
v 2f − v1f = −(v 2i − v1i ) . This verifies that the speed of recession equals the
speed of approach.
65 ••
Investigate the plausibility of the results of Problem 64 by calculating
the final velocities in the following limits: (a) When the two masses are equal,
show that the particles ″swap″ velocities: v1f = v2i i and v2f = v1i (b) If m2 >> m1,
and v2i = 0 , show that v1f ≈ −v1i and v2f ≈ 0 . (c) If m1 >> m2, and v2i = 0 , show
that v1f ≈ v1i and v2f ≈ 2v1i.
Picture the Problem As in this problem, Problem 74 involves an elastic, onedimensional collision between two objects. Both solutions involve using the
conservation of momentum equation m1v1f + m2 v2f = m1v1i + m2 v2i and the elastic
collision equation v1f − v2 f = v2i − v1i . In Part (a) we can simply set the masses
equal to each other and substitute in the equations in Problem 64 to show that the
particles "swap" velocities. In Part (b) we can divide the numerator and
denominator of the equations in Problem 64 by m2 and use the condition that
m2 >> m1 to show that v1f ≈ −v1i+2v2i and v2f ≈ v2i. Conservation of Linear Momentum 771
(a) From Problem 64 we have: v1f =
and 2m2
m1 − m2
v1i +
v2i
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 (1) v2f =
Set m1 = m2 = m to obtain: 2m1
m − m1
v1i + 2
v 2i (2)
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 v1f = 2m
v2i = v2i
m+m and v2 f = 2m
v1i = v1i
m+m (b) Divide the numerator and
denominator of both terms in
equation (1) by m2 to obtain: m1
−1
2
m2
v1f =
v1i +
v2i
m1
m1
+1
+1
m2
m2 If m2 >> m1 and v2i = 0: v1f ≈ −v1i Divide the numerator and
denominator of both terms in
equation (2) by m2 to obtain: v2f = If m2 >> m1: v2f ≈ v 2i (c) Divide the numerator and
denominator of equation (1) by m1 to
obtain: m2
m
22
m1
m1
v1f =
v1i +
v
m2
m2 2i
1+
1+
m1
m1 If m1 >> m2 and v2i = 0: v1f ≈ v1i Divide the numerator and denominator
of equation (2) by m1 to obtain: m2
−1
m1
2
v2f =
v+
v
m2 1i
m2 2i
1+
1+
m1
m1 If m1 >> m2 and v2i = 0: v2f ≈ 2v1i 2 m1
m2 m1
+1
m2 1− v1i + m1
m2 m1
+1
m2 v 2i 1− 772 Chapter 8
Remarks: Note that, in both parts of this problem, the velocities satisfy the
condition that v 2f − v1f = −(v 2i − v1i ) . This verifies that the speed of recession
equals the speed of approach.
66 ••
A bullet of mass m1 is fired horizontally with a speed v0 into the bob of
a ballistic pendulum of mass m2. The pendulum consists of a bob attached to one
end of a very light rod of length L. The rod is free to rotate about a horizontal axis
through its other end. The bullet is stopped in the bob. Find the minimum v0 such
that the bob will swing through a complete circle.
Picture the Problem Choose Ug = 0 at the bob’s equilibrium position.
Momentum is conserved in the collision of the bullet with bob and the initial
kinetic energy of the bob plus bullet is transformed into gravitational potential
energy as it swings up to the top of the circle. If the bullet plus bob just makes it
to the top of the circle with zero speed, it will swing through a complete circle. Use conservation of momentum to
relate the speed of the bullet just
before impact to the initial speed
of the bob plus bullet: m1v0 − (m1 + m2 )V = 0 Solve for the speed of the bullet to
obtain: ⎛ m⎞
v 0 = ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ V
⎜ m⎟
1⎠
⎝ Use conservation of mechanical
energy to relate the initial kinetic
energy of the bob plus bullet to
their potential energy at the top of
the circle: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Kf = Ui = 0,
− Ki + U f = 0 Substitute for Ki and Uf: − 1 (m1 + m2 )V 2 + (m1 + m2 )g (2 L ) = 0
2 Solving for V yields: V = 2 gL Substitute for V in equation (1) and
simplify to obtain: ⎛ m⎞
v0 = 2⎜1 + 2 ⎟ gL
⎜ m⎟
1⎠
⎝ (1) 67 ••
A bullet of mass m1is fired horizontally with a speed v into the bob of
a ballistic pendulum of mass m2 (Figure 819). Find the maximum height h
attained by the bob if the bullet passes through the bob and emerges with a speed
v/3. Conservation of Linear Momentum 773
Picture the Problem Choose Ug = 0 at the equilibrium position of the ballistic
pendulum. Momentum is conserved in the collision of the bullet with the bob
and kinetic energy is transformed into gravitational potential energy as the bob
swings up to its maximum height. Letting V represent the initial speed
of the bob as it begins its upward
swing, use conservation of
momentum to relate this speed to the
speeds of the bullet just before and
after its collision with the bob: m1v = m1 (1 v ) + m2V ⇒ V =
3 Use conservation of energy to
relate the initial kinetic energy of
the bob to its potential energy at its
maximum height: 2m1
v
3m2 ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Kf = Ui = 0,
− Ki + U f = 0 Substitute for Ki and Uf: Substitute for V in the expression
for h and simplify to obtain: − 1 m2V 2 + m2 gh = 0 ⇒ h =
2 V2
2g 2 ⎛ 2m1 ⎞
⎜
⎜ 3m v ⎟
⎟
2m12 v 2
h=⎝ 2 ⎠ =
2
2g
9m 2 g 68 ••
A heavy wooden block rests on a flat table and a highspeed bullet is
fired horizontally into the block, the bullet stopping in it. How far will the block
slide before coming to a stop? The mass of the bullet is 10.5 g, the mass of the
block is 10.5 kg, the bullet’s impact speed is 750 m/s, and the coefficient of
kinetic friction between the block and the table is 0.220. (Assume that the bullet
does not cause the block to spin.)
Picture the Problem Let the mass of the bullet be m, that of the wooden block M,
the precollision speed of the bullet v, and the postcollision speed of the
block+bullet be V. We can use conservation of momentum to find the speed of the
block with the bullet imbedded in it immediately after their perfectly inelastic
collision. We can use Newton’s second law to find the acceleration of the sliding
block and a constantacceleration equation to find the distance the block slides. 774 Chapter 8
Before m r
v Immediately After
r
Fn
r
V M r
fk Sometime Later M +m r
(M + m )g
Δx Using a constantacceleration
equation, relate the speed of the
block+bullet just after their collision
to their acceleration and
displacement before stopping: V2
2a
because the final speed of the
block+bullet is zero. Use conservation of momentum to
relate the precollision speed of the
bullet to the postcollision speed of
the block+bullet: mv = (m + M )V ⇒ V = Substitute for V in the expression for
Δx to obtain: 1⎛ m
⎞
Δx = − ⎜
v⎟
2a ⎝ m + M ⎠ Apply r r ∑ F = ma to the block+bullet (see the force diagram above): 0 = V 2 + 2aΔx ⇒ Δx = − ∑F x m
v
m+M 2 = − f k = (m + M ) a and
∑ Fy =Fn − (m + M )g = 0 Use the definition of the coefficient
of kinetic friction and equation (2) to
obtain: − μ k (m + M )g = (m + M ) a Solve for a to obtain: a = −μk g Substituting for a in the expression
for Δx yields: Δx = (2) f k = μ k Fn = μ k (m + M )g Substituting for fk in equation (1)
yields: (1) 1⎛m
⎜
2μk g ⎝ m + M ⎞
v⎟
⎠ 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δx:
1
Δx =
2(0.220) 9.81m/s 2 ( 2 ⎛
⎞
0.0105 kg
⎜
⎜ 0.0105 kg + 10.5 kg (750 m/s )⎟ = 13.0 cm
⎟
)⎝
⎠ Conservation of Linear Momentum 775
69 ••
[SSM] A 0.425kg ball with a speed of 1.30 m/s rolls across a level
surface toward an open 0.327kg box that is resting on its side. The ball enters the
box, and the box (with the ball inside slides across the surface a distance of
x = 0.520 m. What is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the
table?
Picture the Problem The collision of the ball with the box is perfectly inelastic
and we can find the speed of the boxandball immediately after their collision by
applying conservation of momentum. If we assume that the kinetic friction force
is constant, we can use a constantacceleration equation to find the acceleration of
the box and ball combination and the definition of μk to find its value. Using its definition, express the
coefficient of kinetic friction of the
table: μk = f k (M + m ) a a
=
=
Fn (M + m )g
g Use conservation of momentum to
relate the speed of the ball just
before the collision to the speed of
the ball+box immediately after the
collision: MV = (m + M ) v ⇒ v = Use a constantacceleration equation
to relate the sliding distance of the
ball+box to its initial and final
velocities and its acceleration: vf2 = vi2 + 2aΔx
or, because vf = 0 and vi = v,
v2
0 = v 2 + 2aΔx ⇒ a = −
2Δx Substitute for a in equation (1) to
obtain: v2
μk =
2 gΔ x MV
(2)
m+M Use equation (2) to eliminate v:
⎞
⎛
2
1 ⎛ MV ⎞
1⎜V⎟
⎟
⎜
μk =
⎜
⎟=
2 gΔx ⎝ m + M ⎠
2 gΔx ⎜ m 1 ⎟
+⎟
⎜
⎠
⎝M 2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate μk:
2 (1) ⎞
⎛
⎟
⎜
1
⎜ 1.30 m/s ⎟ = 0.0529
μk =
2(9.81 m/s 2 )(0.520 m ) ⎜ 0.327 kg 1 ⎟
+⎟
⎜
⎠
⎝ 0.425 kg 776 Chapter 8
70 •• Tarzan is in the path of a pack of stampeding elephants when Jane
swings in to the rescue on a rope vine, hauling him off to safety. The length of the
vine is 25 m, and Jane starts her swing with the rope horizontal. If Jane’s mass is
54 kg, and Tarzan’s is 82 kg, to what height above the ground will the pair swing
after she rescues him? (Assume that the rope is vertical when she grabs him.)
Picture the Problem Jane’s collision
with Tarzan is a perfectly inelastic
collision. We can find her speed v1 just
before she grabs Tarzan from
conservation of energy and their speed
V just after she grabs him from
conservation of momentum. Their
kinetic energy just after their collision
will be transformed into gravitational
potential energy when they have
reached their greatest height h. Use conservation of energy to relate
the potential energy of Jane and
Tarzan at their highest point (2) to
their kinetic energy immediately
after Jane grabbed Tarzan:
Apply conservation of linear
momentum to relate Jane’s velocity
just before she collides with Tarzan
to their velocity just after their
perfectly inelastic collision: mJ
0 2
mJ+T 1 Ug = 0 h U 2 = K1
or
V2
mJ+T gh = mJ+TV ⇒ h =
2g
2 1
2 mJ v1 − mJ +TV = 0 ⇒ V = (1) mJ
v1 (2)
mJ+T Apply conservation of mechanical
energy to relate Jane’s kinetic
energy at 1 to her potential energy at
0: K1 = U 0
or
2
1
2 gL
2 mJ v1 = mJ gL ⇒ v1 = Substitute for v1 in equation (2) to
obtain: V= mJ
2 gL
mJ+T Substitute for V in equation (1) and
simplify: ⎛m ⎞
1 ⎛ mJ ⎞
⎜
⎟ 2 gL = ⎜ J ⎟ L
h=
⎜m ⎟
2 g ⎜ mJ+T ⎟
⎝
⎠
⎝ J +T ⎠ Substitute numerical values and
evaluate h: ⎛
⎞
54 kg
h=⎜
⎜ 54 kg + 82 kg ⎟ (25 m ) = 3.9 m
⎟
⎝
⎠ 2 2 2 Conservation of Linear Momentum 777
71 ••
[SSM] Scientists estimate that the meteorite responsible for the
creation of Barringer Meteorite Crater in Arizona weighed roughly
2.72 × 105 tonne (1 tonne = 1000 kg) and was traveling at a speed of 17.9 km/s.
Take Earth’s orbital speed to be about 30.0 km/s. (a) What should the direction of
impact be if Earth’s orbital speed is to be changed by the maximum possible
amount? (b) Assuming the condition of collision in Part (a), estimate the
maximum percentage change in Earth’s orbital speed as a result of this collision.
(c) What mass asteroid, having a speed equal to Earth’s orbital speed, would be
necessary to change Earth’s orbital speed by 1.00%?
Picture the Problem Let the system include Earth and the asteroid. Choose a
coordinate system in which the direction of Earth’s orbital speed is the +x
direction. We can apply conservation of linear momentum to the perfectly
inelastic collision of Earth and the asteroid to find the percentage change in
Earth’s orbital speed as well as the mass of an asteroid that would change Earth’s
orbital speed by 1.00%. Note that the following solution neglects the increase in
Earth’s orbital speed due to the gravitational pull of the asteroid during descent. (a) The meteorite should impact Earth along a line exactly opposite Earth’s
orbital velocity vector.
(b) Express the percentage change in
Earth’s orbital speed as a result of
the collision: Apply the conservation of linear
momentum to the system to obtain: v
−v
v
Δv
= Earth f = 1 − f
vEarth
vEarth
vEarth (1) where vf is Earth’s orbital speed after
the collision.
rrr
Δp = pf − pi = 0
or, because the asteroid and Earth are
moving horizontally,
pf, x − pi, x = 0 Because the collision is perfectly inelastic: (mEarth + masteroid )vf − (mEarth vEarth − masteroid vasteroid ) = 0 778 Chapter 8
Solving for vf yields: vf = = mEarth vEarth − masteroid vasteroid
mEarth vEarth
m
v
=
− asteroid asteroid
mEarth + masteroid
mEarth + masteroid mEarth + masteroid
vEarth
m
1 + asteroid
mEarth masteroid
vasteroid
mEarth
−
m
1 + asteroid
mEarth Because masteroid << mEarth: masteroid
vasteroid
−1
⎛ masteroid ⎞
mEarth
masteroid
⎜1 +
⎟
vf ≈ vEarth −
= vEarth −
vasteroid ⎜
masteroid
mEarth
mEarth ⎟
⎝
⎠
1+
mEarth
−1 ⎛m
⎞
Expanding ⎜1 + asteroid ⎟ binomially
⎜
mEarth ⎟
⎝
⎠
yields: ⎛ masteroid
⎜1 +
⎜
mEarth
⎝ −1 ⎛m
⎞
Substitute for ⎜1 + asteroid ⎟ in the
⎜
mEarth ⎟
⎝
⎠
expression for vf to obtain: vf ≈ vEarth −
≈ vEarth − −1 ⎞
m
⎟ = 1 − asteroid
⎟
mEarth
⎠
+ higher order terms
⎛m
masteroid
vasteroid ⎜1 − asteroid
⎜
mEarth
mEarth
⎝
masteroid
vasteroid
mEarth Substitute for vf in equation (1) to obtain: Δv
= 1−
vEarth vEarth − masteroid
masteroid
vasteroid
vasteroid
mEarth
mEarth
=
vEarth
vEarth ⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠ Conservation of Linear Momentum 779
Using data found in the appendices of your text or given in the problem statement,
Δv
substitute numerical values and evaluate
:
vEarth ⎛
10 3 kg ⎞
⎜ 2.72 × 10 5 tonne ×
⎟ (17.9 km/s )
⎜
1 tonne ⎟
⎝
⎠
Δv
5.98 × 10 24 kg
=
= 2.71× 10 −15 %
30.0 km/s
vEarth (c) If the asteroid is to change Earth’s
orbital speed by one percent: masteroid
vasteroid
mEarth
1
=
100
vEarth Solve for masteroid to obtain: masteroid = vEarth mEarth
100vasteroid Substitute numerical values and evaluate masteroid:
masteroid = (30.0 km/s )(5.98 × 10 24 kg ) =
100(17.9 km/s ) 1.00 × 10 23 kg Remarks: The mass of this asteroid is approximately that of the moon!
72 ••• William Tell shoots an apple from his son’s head. The speed of the
125g arrow just before it strikes the apple is 25.0 m/s, and at the time of impact it
is traveling horizontally. If the arrow sticks in the apple and the arrow/apple
combination strikes the ground 8.50 m behind the son’s feet, how massive was the
apple? Assume the son is 1.85 m tall.
Picture the Problem Let the system include Earth, the apple, and the arrow.
Choose a coordinate system in which the direction the arrow is traveling before
imbedding itself in the apple is the +x direction. We can apply conservation of
linear momentum to express the mass of the apple in terms of the speed of the
arrowapple combination just after the collision and then use constantacceleration equations to find this postcollision speed. 780 Chapter 8
Apply conservation of linear
momentum to the system to obtain: rrr
Δp = pf − pi = 0
or, because the arrow and apple are
moving horizontally,
pf, x − pi, x = 0 (m Because the collision is perfectly
inelastic (the arrow is imbedded in
the apple): arrow + mapple )v x − marrow vi,arrow = 0 Solving for mapple yields: ⎛v
⎞
mapple = marrow ⎜ i,arrow − 1⎟
⎜v
⎟
⎝x
⎠ (1) Using constantacceleration
equations, express the horizontal and
vertical displacements of the applearrow after their collision: Δx = v x Δt (2) and Substituting for Δt in equation (2)
yields: Δx = v x Δy = 1 g (Δt ) ⇒ Δt =
2
2 Substitute for vx in equation (1) to
obtain:
mapple 2Δy
g 2Δy
g
⇒ v x = Δx
g
2Δy ⎞
⎛
⎟
⎜
⎟
⎜ vi,arrow
= marrow ⎜
− 1⎟
⎟
⎜ Δx g
⎟
⎜
2Δy
⎠
⎝ Substitute numerical values and evaluate mapple: mapple ⎛
⎞
⎜
⎟
⎜
⎟
25.0 m/s
= (0.125 kg )⎜
− 1⎟ = 101 g
2
⎜ (8.50 m ) 9.81 m/s
⎟
⎜
(1.85 m ) ⎟
2
⎝
⎠ Explosions and Radioactive Decay
73 ••
[SSM] The beryllium isotope 8Be is unstable and decays into two α
particles (mα = 6.64 × 10–27 kg) and releases 1.5 × 10–14 J of energy. Determine
the velocities of the two α particles that arise from the decay of a 8Be nucleus at
rest, assuming that all the energy appears as kinetic energy of the particles. Conservation of Linear Momentum 781
Picture the Problem This nuclear reaction is 4Be → 2α + 1.5 × 10−14 J. In order
to conserve momentum, the alpha particles will have move in opposite directions
with the same velocities. We’ll use conservation of energy to find their speeds. Letting E represent the energy
released in the reaction, express
conservation of energy for this
process:
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vα: ( ) 2
2 K α = 2 1 mα vα = E ⇒ vα =
2 E
mα 1.5 × 10 −14 J
vα =
= 1.5 × 10 6 m/s
− 27
6.64 × 10 kg 74 ••
The light isotope of lithium, 5Li, is unstable and breaks up
spontaneously into a proton and an α particle. During this process, 3.15 × 10–13 J
of energy are released, appearing as the kinetic energy of the two decay products.
Determine the velocities of the proton and the α particle that arise from the decay
of a 5Li nucleus at rest. (Note: The masses of the proton and alpha particle are
mp = 1.67 × 10–27 kg and mα = 4mp = 6.64 × 10–27 kg.)
Picture the Problem This nuclear reaction is 5Li → α + p + 3.15 × 10−13 J. To
conserve momentum, the alpha particle and proton must move in opposite
directions. We’ll apply both conservation of energy and conservation of
momentum to find the speeds of the proton and alpha particle. Use conservation of momentum in
this process to express the alpha
particle’s speed in terms of the
proton’s: pi = p f = 0
and
0 = mp vp − mα vα Solve for vα and substitute for mα
to obtain: vα = Letting E represent the energy
released in the reaction, apply
conservation of energy to the
process: K p + Kα = E mp
mα vp = mp
4mp vp = 1 vp
4 or
2
2
1
1
2 mp vp + 2 mα vα = E
2
mp vp + 1 mα (1 vp ) = E
2
4 Substitute for vα: 1
2 Solve for vp and substitute for mα to
obtain: vp = 2 32 E
16mp + mα 782 Chapter 8
Substitute numerical values and evaluate vp: vp = ( ) 32 3.15 × 10 −13 J
= 1.74 × 10 7 m/s
− 27
− 27
16 1.67 × 10 kg + 6.64 × 10 kg ( ) vα = 1 vp =
4 Use the relationship between vp and
vα to obtain vα: 1
4 (1.74 ×10 7 m/s ) = 4.34 × 106 m/s 75 ••• A 3.00kg projectile is fired with an initial speed of 120 m/s at an
angle of 30.0º with the horizontal. At the top of its trajectory, the projectile
explodes into two fragments of masses 1.00 kg and 2.00 kg. At 3.60 s after the
explosion the 2.00kg fragment lands on the ground directly below the point of
explosion. (a) Determine the velocity of the 1.00kg fragment immediately after
the explosion. (b) Find the distance between the point of firing and the point at
which the 1.00kg fragment strikes the ground. (c) Determine the energy released
in the explosion.
Picture the Problem The pictorial representation shows the projectile at its
maximum elevation and is moving horizontally. It also shows the two fragments
resulting from the explosion. We’ll choose the system to include the projectile
and Earth so that no external forces act to change the momentum of the system
during the explosion. With this choice of system we can also use conservation of
energy to determine the elevation of the projectile when it explodes. We’ll also
find it useful to use constantacceleration equations in our description of the
motion of the projectile and its fragments. Neglect air resistance.
r
y
v
1 φ 1 r
v3 3 h r
v0
θ
0 r
v2
Δx (a) Use conservation of linear
momentum to relate the velocity of
the projectile before its explosion to
the velocities of its two parts after
the explosion: 2 Ug = 0 d = Δ x + Δ x' x r
r
pi = pf
r
r
r
m3v 3 = m1v1 + m2 v 2
ˆ
ˆ
m3v3 i = m1v x1i + m1v y1 ˆ − m2 v y 2 ˆ
j
j Conservation of Linear Momentum 783
The only way this equality can hold
is if the x and y components are
equal:
Express v3 in terms of v0 and
substitute for the masses to obtain: m3v3 = m1v x1
and
m1v y1 = m2 v y 2 v x1 = 3v3 = 3v0 cosθ = 3(120 m/s )cos30.0° = 312 m/s and
v y1 = 2v y 2
Using a constantacceleration
equation with the downward
direction positive, relate vy2 to the
time it takes the 2.00kg fragment to
hit the ground:
Solving for vy2 gives: With Ug = 0 at the launch site,
apply conservation of energy to the
climb of the projectile to its
maximum elevation h:
Solving for h yields: Substitute numerical values and
evaluate h:
Substitute numerical values in
equation (2) and evaluate vy2: Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) and evaluate vy1:
r
Express v1 in vector form: (1) h = v y 2 Δt + 1 g (Δt )
2 2 h − 1 g (Δt )
2
=
Δt 2 vy 2 (2) ΔK + ΔU = 0
Because Kf = Ui = 0, − K i + U f = 0
or
2
− 1 m3v y 0 + m3 gh = 0
2
2
vy0 h= 2g = (v0 sin θ )2
2g [(120 m/s)sin30.0°] 2 h= ( 2 9.81m/s 2 ) = 183.5 m 183.5 m − 1 (9.81m/s 2 )(3.60 s )
2
=
3.60 s
= 33.31m/s 2 vy2 v y1 = 2(33.31m/s ) = 66.62 m/s
r
ˆ
v1 = vx1i + v y1 ˆ
j
= (312 m/s) iˆ + (66.6 m/s) ˆ
j 784 Chapter 8
(b) Express the total distance d
traveled by the 1.00kg fragment:
Relate Δx to v0 and the timetoexplosion: d = Δx + Δx' (3) Δx = (v0 cosθ )(Δt exp ) (4) v0 sin θ
g Using a constantacceleration
equation, express Δtexp: Δtexp = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Δtexp: Δt exp = Substitute in equation (4) and
evaluate Δx: Δx = (120 m/s )(cos30.0°)(6.116 s )
= 635.6 m vy0
g = (120 m/s)sin30.0° = 6.116 s
9.81 m/s 2 Relate the distance traveled by the
1.00kg fragment after the
explosion to the time it takes it to
reach the ground: Δx' = vx1Δt' Using a constantacceleration
equation, relate the time Δt′ for the
1.00kg fragment to reach the
ground to its initial speed in the y
direction and the distance to the
ground: Δy = v y1Δt' − 1 g (Δt' )
2 Substitute to obtain the quadratic
equation: (Δt' )2 − (13.6 s )Δt' − 37.4 s 2 = 0 Solve the quadratic equation to find
Δt′: Δt′ = 15.945 s Substitute in equation (3) and
evaluate d: d = Δx + Δx' = Δx + v x1Δt' 2 = 635.6 m + (312 m/s )(15.945 s )
= 5.6 km (c) Express the energy released in
the explosion: Eexp = ΔK = K f − K i (5) Conservation of Linear Momentum 785
Find the kinetic energy of the
fragments after the explosion: 2
K f = K1 + K 2 = 1 m1v12 + 1 m2 v2
2
2 = 1
2 (1.00 kg )[(312 m/s)2 + (66.6 m/s)2 ]
2
+ 1 (2.00 kg )(33.3 m/s )
2 = 52.0 kJ Find the kinetic energy of the
projectile before the explosion: 2
K i = 1 m3 v3 = 1 m3 (v0 cosθ )
2
2 2 = 1
2 (3.00 kg )[(120 m/s)cos 30°] 2 = 16.2 kJ Substitute in equation (5) to
determine the energy released in
the explosion: Eexp = K f − K i = 52.0 kJ − 16.2 kJ
= 35.8 kJ 76 ••• The boron isotope 9B is unstable and disintegrates into a proton and
two α particles. The total energy released as kinetic energy of the decay products
is 4.4 × 10–14 J. After one such event, with the 9B nucleus at rest prior to decay,
the velocity of the proton is measured as 6.0 × 106 m/s. If the two α particles
have equal energies, find the magnitude and the direction of their velocities with
respect to the direction of the proton.
Picture the Problem This nuclear
reaction is
9
B → 2α + p + 4.4×10−14 J.
Assume that the proton moves in the
–x direction as shown in the diagram.
The sum of the kinetic energies of the
decay products equals the energy
released in the decay. We’ll use
conservation of momentum to find the
angle between the velocities of the
proton and the alpha particles. Note
that vα = v'α . Express the energy released to the
kinetic energies of the decay
products: y
r
vα α
r
vp θ p x θ
α
r
vα
' K p + 2 Kα = Erel
or
2
2
1
1
2 mp v p + 2 2 mα vα = E rel ( ) 786 Chapter 8
Solving for vα yields: vα = 2
Erel − 1 mp vp
2 mα Substitute numerical values and evaluate vα:
4.4 × 10 −14 J
vα =
−
6.64 × 10 − 27 kg 1
2 (1.67 ×10 − 27 )( kg 6.0 × 10 6 m/s
6.64 × 10 − 27 kg ) 2 = 1.44 × 10 6 m/s = 1.4 × 10 6 m/s
Given that the boron isotope was
at rest prior to the decay, use
conservation of momentum to
relate the momenta of the decay
products:
Substituting for mα to obtain:
Solving for θ yields: Substitute numerical values and
evaluate θ :
Let θ ′ equal the angle the velocities
of the alpha particles make with that
of the proton: r
r
pf = pi = 0
or, because p xf = 0 , 2(mα vα cosθ ) − mp vp = 0 2(4mp vα cos θ ) − mp vp = 0
⎡ vp ⎤
⎥
⎣ 8vα ⎦ θ = cos −1 ⎢ ⎡ 6.0 × 106 m/s ⎤
⎥ = ±59°
6
⎣ 8 1.44 × 10 m/s ⎦ θ = cos −1 ⎢ ( ) θ ' = ±(180° − 59°) = ± 121° Coefficient of Restitution
77 •
[SSM] You are in charge of measuring the coefficient of restitution
for a new alloy of steel. You convince your engineering team to accomplish this
task by simply dropping a small ball onto a plate, both the ball and plate made
from the experimental alloy. If the ball is dropped from a height of 3.0 m and
rebounds to a height of 2.5 m, what is the coefficient of restitution?
Picture the Problem The coefficient of restitution is defined as the ratio of the
speed of recession to the speed of approach. These speeds can be determined
from the height from which the ball was dropped and the height to which it
rebounded by using conservation of mechanical energy. Conservation of Linear Momentum 787
Use its definition to relate the
coefficient of restitution to the
speeds of approach and recession: e= Letting Ug = 0 at the surface of the
steel plate, apply conservation of
energy to obtain: ΔK + U = 0
or, because Ki = Uf = 0,
Kf −Ui = 0 vrec
vapp 2
mvapp − mghapp = 0 Substituting for Kf and Ui yields: 1
2 Solving for vapp yields: vapp = 2 ghapp In like manner, show that: vrec = 2 ghrec Substitute in the equation for e to
obtain: e= Substitute numerical values and
evaluate e: e= 2 ghrec
2 ghapp = hrec
happ 2.5 m
= 0.91
3.0 m 78 •
According to the official racquetball rules, to be acceptable for
tournament play, a ball must bounce to a height of between 173 and 183 cm when
dropped from a height of 254 cm at room temperature. What is the acceptable
range of values for the coefficient of restitution for the racquetball–floor system?
Picture the Problem The coefficient of restitution is defined as the ratio of the
speed of recession to the speed of approach. These speeds can be determined from
the heights from which the ball was dropped and the height to which it rebounded
by using conservation of mechanical energy. Use its definition to relate the
coefficient of restitution to the
speeds of approach and recession: e= Letting Ug = 0 at the surface of the
steel plate, the mechanical energy of
the ballEarth system is: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Ki = Uf = 0,
Kf −Ui = 0 Substituting for Kf and Ui yields: 1
2 vrec
vapp 2
mvapp − mghapp = 0 ⇒ vapp = 2 ghapp 788 Chapter 8
In like manner, show that: vrec = 2 ghrec Substitute in the equation for e to
obtain: e= Substitute numerical values and
evaluate emin: emin = 173 cm
= 0.825
254 cm Substitute numerical values and
evaluate emax: emax = 183 cm
= 0.849
254 cm 2 ghrec
2 ghapp = hrec
happ and 0.825 ≤ e ≤ 0.849
79 ••
A ball bounces to 80 percent of its original height. (a) What fraction of
its mechanical energy is lost each time it bounces? (b) What is the coefficient of
restitution of the ball–floor system?
Picture the Problem Because the rebound kinetic energy is proportional to the
rebound height, the percentage of mechanical energy lost in one bounce can be
inferred from knowledge of the rebound height. The coefficient of restitution is
defined as the ratio of the speed of recession to the speed of approach. These
speeds can be determined from the heights from which an object was dropped and
the height to which it rebounded by using conservation of mechanical energy. (a) We know, because the mechanical energy of the ballEarth system is constant,
that the kinetic energy of an object dropped from a given height h is proportional
to h. If, for each bounce of the ball, hrec = 0.80happ, 20% of its mechanical energy
is lost.
(b) Use its definition to relate the
coefficient of restitution to the
speeds of approach and recession: e= Letting Ug = 0 at the surface from
which the ball is rebounding, the
mechanical energy of the ball is: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Ki = Uf = 0,
Kf −Ui = 0 vrec
vapp (1) 2
mvapp − mghapp = 0 ⇒ vapp = 2 ghapp Substituting for Kf and Ui yields: 1
2 In like manner, show that: vrec = 2 ghrec Conservation of Linear Momentum 789
Substitute for vrec and vapp in
equation (1) to obtain: Substitute for 2 ghrec e= 2 ghapp = hrec
happ e = 0.80 = 0.89 hrec
to obtain:
happ 80 ••
A 2.0kg object moving to the right at 6.0 m/s collides headon with a
4.0kg object that is initially at rest. After the collision, the 2.0kg object is
moving to the left at 1.0 m/s. (a) Find the velocity of the 4.0kg object after the
collision. (b) Find the energy lost in the collision. (c) What is the coefficient of
restitution for these objects?
Picture the Problem Let the numerals 2 and 4 refer, respectively, to the 2.0kg
object and the 4.0kg object. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction
the 2.0kg object is moving before the collision is the +x direction and let the
system consist of Earth, the surface on which the objects slide, and the objects.
Then we can use conservation of momentum to find the velocity of the recoiling
4.0kg object. We can find the energy transformed in the collision by calculating
the difference between the pre and postcollision kinetic energies and find the
coefficient of restitution from its definition. (a) Use conservation of linear
momentum in one dimension to
relate the initial and final momenta
of the participants in the collision: r
r
pi = pf
or
m2 v 2 i = m4 v 4 f − m2 v 2 f Solve for the final velocity of the
4.0kg object: v4 f = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate v4f: v4 f = m 2 v 2 i + m2 v 2 f
m4 (2.0 kg )(6.0 m/s + 1.0 m/s)
4.0 kg = 3.50 m/s = 3.5 m/s
(b) Express the energy lost in terms
of the kinetic energies before and
after the collision: Elost = K i − K f 2
2
2
= 1 m2 v2i − (1 m2 v2f + 1 m4 v4 f )
2
2
2 = 1
2 [m (v
2 2
2i 2
2
− v2 f ) − m4 v4 f Substitute numerical values and evaluate Elost:
Elost = 1
2 [((2.0 kg ){(6.0 m/s) 2 − (1.0 m/s ) 2 })− (4.0 kg )(3.50 m/s) ] =
2 11 J 790 Chapter 8
(c) From the definition of the
coefficient of restitution we have: e= vrec v4 f − v2f
=
vapp
v2i Substitute numerical values and
evaluate e: e= 3.50 m/s − (− 1.0 m/s)
= 0.75
6.0 m/s 81 ••
A 2.0kg block moving to the right with speed of 5.0 m/s collides with
a 3.0kg block that is moving in the same direction at 2.0 m/s, as in Figure 849.
After the collision, the 3.0kg block moves to the right at 4.2 m/s. Find (a) the
velocity of the 2.0kg block after the collision and (b) the coefficient of restitution
between the two blocks.
Picture the Problem Let the numeral 2 refer to the 2.0kg block and the numeral
3 to the 3.0kg block. Choose a coordinate system in which the direction the
blocks are moving before the collision is the +x direction and let the system
consist of Earth, the surface on which the blocks move, and the blocks. Then we
can use conservation of momentum to find the speed of the 2.0kg block after the
collision. We can find the coefficient of restitution from its definition. r
r
pi = p f (a) Use conservation of linear
momentum in one dimension to
relate the initial and final momenta
of the participants in the collision: or
m2 v2i + m3 v3i = m2 v2 f + m3 v3f Solve for the final speed of the 2.0kg object: v2f = m2v2i + m3v3i − m3v3f
m2 Substitute numerical values and evaluate v2f:
v2 f = (2.0 kg )(5.0 m/s) + (3.0 kg )(2.0 m/s − 4.2 m/s) = 1.70 m/s =
2.0 kg 1.7 m/s (b) From the definition of the
coefficient of restitution we have: e= vrec v3f − v2f
=
vapp v2i − v3i Substitute numerical values and
evaluate e: e= 4.2 m/s − 1.7 m/s
= 0.83
5.0 m/s − 2.0 m/s 82 ••• To keep homerun records and distances consistent from year to year,
organized baseball randomly checks the coefficient of restitution between new
baseballs and wooden surfaces similar to that of an average bat. Suppose you are
in charge of making sure that no ″juiced″ baseballs are produced. (a) In a random Conservation of Linear Momentum 791
test, you find one that when dropped from 2.0 m rebounds 0.25 m. What is the
coefficient of restitution for this ball? (b) What is the maximum distance home
run shot you would expect from this ball, neglecting any effects due to air
resistance and making reasonable assumption for bat speeds and incoming pitch
speeds? Is this a ″juiced″ ball, a ″normal″ ball, or a ″dead″ ball?
Picture the Problem The coefficient of restitution is defined as the ratio of the
speed of recession to the speed of approach. These speeds can be determined
from the heights from which the ball was dropped and the height to which it
rebounded by using conservation of mechanical energy. We can use the same
elevation range equation to find the maximum home run you would expect from
the ball with the experimental coefficient of restitution. (a) The coefficient of restitution is
the ratio of the speeds of approach
and recession: e= Letting Ug = 0 at the surface of from
which the ball rebounds, the
mechanical energy of the ballEarth
system is: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Ki = Uf = 0,
Kf −Ui = 0 vrec
vapp (1) 2
mvapp − mghapp = 0 ⇒ vapp = 2 ghapp Substituting for Kf and Ui yields: 1
2 In like manner, show that: vrec = 2 ghrec Substitute for vrec and vapp in
equation (1) and simplify to obtain: e= Substitute numerical values and
evaluate e: e= (b) The ″sameelevation″ range
equation is: R= 2 ghrec
2 ghapp = hrec
happ 0.25 m
= 0.3536 = 0.35
2.0 m
22
2
vrec sin 2θ e vapp sin 2θ
=
(2)
g
g vapp is the sum of the speed of the
ball and the speed of the bat: vapp = vball + vbat Assuming that the bat travels about
1 m in 0.2 s yields: vbat = 1m
= 5 m/s
0.2 s 792 Chapter 8
Assuming that the speed of the
baseball thrown by the pitcher is close
to 100 mi/h yields: vball ≈ 45 m/s Evaluate vapp to obtain: vapp = 45 m/s + 5 m/s = 50 m/s Assuming a 45° launch angle,
substitute numerical values in
equation (2) and evaluate R: R= (0.3536)2 (50 m/s)2 sin 2(45°)
9.81 m/s 2 ≈ 32 m Because home runs must travel at least 100 m in modern major league ballparks,
this is a ″dead″ ball and should be tossed out.
83 ••
[SSM] To make puck handling easy, hockey pucks are kept frozen
until they are used in the game. (a) Explain why room temperature pucks would
be more difficult to handle on the end of a stick than a frozen puck. (Hint: Hockey
pucks are made of rubber.) (b) A roomtemperature puck rebounds 15 cm when
dropped onto a wooden surface from 100 cm. If a frozen puck has only half the
coefficient of restitution of a roomtemperature one, predict how high the frozen
puck would rebound under the same conditions.
Picture the Problem The coefficient of restitution is defined as the ratio of the
speed of recession to the speed of approach. These speeds can be determined
from the heights from which the ball was dropped and the height to which it
rebounded by using conservation of mechanical energy. (a) At roomtemperature rubber will bounce more when it hits a stick than it will
at freezing temperatures.
(b) The mechanical energy of the
rebounding puck is constant: If the puck’s speed of recession is
vrec and it rebounds to a height h,
then:
The coefficient of restitution is the
ratio of the speeds of approach and
recession: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Kf = Ui = 0,
− Ki + U f = 0 − mv
1
2 e= 2
rec + mgh = 0 ⇒ h = vrec
⇒ vrec = evapp
vapp 2
vrec
2g (1) Conservation of Linear Momentum 793
Substitute for vrec to obtain: Letting Ug = 0 at the surface of from
which the puck rebounds, the
mechanical energy of the puckEarth
system is: h= 2
e 2 vapp (2) 2g ΔK + ΔU = 0
Because Ki = Uf = 0,
Kf −Ui = 0 2
mvapp − mghapp = 0 ⇒ vapp = 2 ghapp Substituting for Kf and Ui yields: 1
2 In like manner, show that: vrec = 2 ghrec Substitute for vrec and vapp in
equation (1) and simplify to obtain: e= Substitute numerical values and
evaluate eroom temp: eroom temp = For the falling puck, vapp is given
by: 2 ghrec
2 ghapp = hrec
happ 15 cm
= 0.3873
100 cm vapp = 2 gH
where H is the height from which the
puck was dropped.
2e 2 gH
= e2 H
2g Substituting for vapp in equation
(2) and simplifying yields: h= For the roomtemperature puck: efrozen = 1 eroom temp
2 Substituting for e in equation (3)
yields: 2
h = 1 eroom temp H
4 Substitute numerical values and
evaluate h: h= 1
4 (0.3873)2 (100 cm) = (3) 3.8 cm Remarks: The puck that rebounds only 3.8 cm is a much ″deader″ and,
therefore, much better puck. Collisions in More Than One Dimension
84 •• In Section 83 it was proven by using geometry that when a particle
elastically collides with another particle of equal mass that is initially at rest, the 794 Chapter 8
two postcollision velocities are perpendicular. Here we examine another way of
proving this result that illustrates the power of vector notation. (a) Given that
r
r
r
A = B + C , square both sides of this equation (obtain the scalar product of each
rr
side with itself) to show that A 2 r= B 2 + C 2 + 2 B ⋅ C . (b) Let the momentum of
the initially moving particle be P and the momenta of the particles after the
r
r
collision be p 1 and p 2. Write the vector equation for the conservation of linear
momentum and square both sides (obtain the dot product of each side with itself).
Compare it to the equation gotten from the elasticcollision condition (kinetic
energy is conserved) and finally show that these two equations imply that
rr
p 1 ⋅ p 2 = 0.
Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the magnitude of a vector and
the definition of the scalar product to establish the result called for in (a). In Part
(b) we can use the result of Part (a), the conservation of momentum, and the
definition of an elastic collision (kinetic energy is conserved) to show that the
particles separate at right angles.
rr
(a) Find the dot product of B + C
with itself: r
r
(B + C ) ⋅ (B + C ) = B rrr
Because A = B + C : r r2
rrrr
A2 = B + C = B + C ⋅ B + C ( r r 2 ( )( ) rrrr
Substitute for B + C ⋅ B + C to
obtain: rr
+ C 2 + 2B ⋅ C )( ) rr
A2 = B 2 + C 2 + 2 B ⋅ C (b) Apply conservation of
momentum to the collision of the
particles: rr
r
p1 + p2 = p Form the scalar product of each
side of this equation with itself to
obtain: rr
rr
( p1 + p2 ) ⋅ ( p1 + p2 ) = Use the definition of an elastic
collision to obtain: Subtract equation (1) from equation
(2) to obtain: rr
p⋅ p or
rr
2
p12 + p2 + 2 p1 ⋅ p2 = p 2 (1) 2
p12 p2
p2
+
=
2m 2m 2m
or
2
p12 + p 2 = p 2 (2) rr
2 p1 ⋅ p2 = 0 or rr
p1 ⋅ p2 = 0 That is, the particles move apart along
paths that are at right angles to each
other. Conservation of Linear Momentum 795
85 ••
During a pool game, the cue ball, which has an initial speed of 5.0 m/s,
makes an elastic collision with the eight ball, which is initially at rest. After the
collision, the eight ball moves at an angle of 30º to the right of the original
direction of the cue ball. Assume that the balls have equal masses. (a) Find the
direction of motion of the cue ball immediately after the collision. (b) Find the
speed of each ball immediately after the collision.
Picture the Problem Let the initial direction of motion of the cue ball be the +x
direction. We can apply conservation of energy to determine the angle the cue
ball makes with the +x direction and the conservation of momentum to find the
final velocities of the cue ball and the eight ball. (a) Use conservation of energy to
relate the velocities of the collision
participants before and after the
collision: 1
2 2
2
2
mvci = 1 mvcf + 1 mv8
2
2 or
2
2
2
vci = vcf + v8 This Pythagorean relationship
rr
r
tells us that v ci , v cf , and v8 form a θ cf + θ 8 = 90° right triangle. Hence: θ cf = 60° (b) Use conservation of momentum
in the x direction to relate the
velocities of the collision participants
before and after the collision: and r
r
pxi = pxf
or
mvci = mvcf cos θ cf + mv8 cos θ 8
r
r
pyi = pyf Use conservation of momentum in
the y direction to obtain a second
equation relating the velocities of the
collision participants before and after
the collision: or
0 = mvcf sin θ cf + mv8 sin θ 8 Solve these equations simultaneously
to obtain: vcf = 2.50 m/s and v8 = 4.33 m/s 86 •• Object A, which has a mass m and a velocity v0 ˆ collides with object
i
1
ˆ . Following the collision, object B
B, which has a mass 2m and a velocity 2 v0 j
ˆ
has a velocity of 1 v i . (a) Determine the velocity of object A after the collision.
4 0 (b) Is the collision elastic? If not, express the change in the kinetic energy in terms
of m and v0. 796 Chapter 8
Picture the Problem We can find the final velocity of the object whose mass is
m by using the conservation of momentum. Whether the collision was elastic can
be decided by examining the difference between the initial and final kinetic
energy of the interacting objects. (a) Use conservation of linear
momentum to relate the initial and
final velocities of the two objects: r
r
pi = pf
or
r
ˆ
ˆ
mv0 i + 2m 1 v0 ˆ = 2m 1 v0 i + mv1f
j
4
2 Simplify to obtain: r
ˆ
v0 i + v0 ˆ = 1 v0 i + v1f
j2ˆ r
Solving for v1f yields: r
v1f = (b) Express the difference between
the kinetic energy of the system
before the collision and its kinetic
energy after the collision:
Substituting for the kinetic energies
yields:
Substitute for speeds and simplify to
obtain: () 1
2 () ˆ
v0 i + v0 ˆ
j ΔE = K i − K f = K1i + K 2i − (K1f + K 2f ) ΔE = 1
2 (mv 2
1i 2
2
+ 2mv2i − mv12f − 2mv2f ) [ 2
2
2
12
ΔE = 1 m v0 + 2(1 v0 ) − 5 v0 − 2(16 v0 )
4
4
2 = 1
16 2
mv0 Because ΔE ≠ 0, the collision is inelastic.
87 ••
[SSM] A puck of mass 5.0 kg moving at 2.0 m/s approaches an
identical puck that is stationary on frictionless ice. After the collision, the first
puck leaves with a speed v1 at 30º to the original line of motion; the second puck
leaves with speed v2 at 60º, as in Figure 850. (a) Calculate v1 and v2. (b) Was the
collision elastic?
Picture the Problem Let the direction of motion of the puck that is moving
before the collision be the +x direction. Applying conservation of momentum to
the collision in both the x and y directions will lead us to two equations in the
unknowns v1 and v2 that we can solve simultaneously. We can decide whether the
collision was elastic by either calculating the system’s kinetic energy before and
after the collision or by determining whether the angle between the final velocities
is 90°. Conservation of Linear Momentum 797
(a) Use conservation of linear
momentum in the x direction to
obtain: p xi = p xf
or
mv = mv1 cos 30° + mv2 cos 60° Simplify further to obtain: v = v1 cos 30° + v2 cos 60° Use conservation of momentum in
the y direction to obtain a second
equation relating the velocities of the
collision participants before and
after the collision: p yi = p yf
or
0 = mv1 sin 30° − mv2 sin 60° Simplifying further yields: 0 = v1 sin 30° − v2 sin 60° Solve equations (1) and (2)
simultaneously to obtain: v1 = 1.7 m/s and v2 = 1.0 m/s (1) (2) r
r
(b) Because the angle between v1 and v 2 is 90°, the collision was elastic. Figure 851 shows the result of a collision between two objects of
88 ••
unequal mass. (a) Find the speed v2 of the larger mass after the collision and the
angle θ2. (b) Show that the collision is elastic.
Picture the Problem Let the direction of motion of the object that is moving
before the collision be the +x direction. Applying conservation of momentum to
the motion in both the x and y directions will lead us to two equations in the
unknowns v2 and θ2 that we can solve simultaneously. We can show that the
collision was elastic by showing that the system’s kinetic energy before and after
the collision is the same. (a) Use conservation of linear
momentum in the x direction to
relate the velocities of the collision
participants before and after the
collision: Use conservation of linear
momentum in the y direction to
obtain a second equation relating the
velocities of the collision participants
before and after the collision: pxi = pxf or
3mv0 = 5mv0 cos θ1 + 2mv2 cos θ 2
or
3v0 = 5v0 cos θ1 + 2v2 cos θ 2
p yi = p yf or
0 = 5mv0 sin θ1 − 2mv 2 sin θ 2 798 Chapter 8
Simplifying further yields:
Note that if tanθ1 = 2, then: Substitute in the xdirection
momentum equation and simplify
to obtain: Substitute in the ydirection
momentum equation and simplify
to obtain: 0 = 5v0 sin θ1 − 2v 2 sin θ 2 cosθ 1 = 1 and sin θ 1 = 5 3v0 = 5v0 2
5 1
+ 2v2 cos θ 2
5 or
v0 = v2 cos θ 2 (1) 2
− 2v2 sin θ 2
5 0 = 5v0 or
0 = v0 − v2 sin θ 2 (2) Solve equations (1) and (2)
simultaneously for θ2 : θ 2 = tan −1 (1) = 45.0° Substitute in equation (1) to find
v2 : v2 = (b) To show that the collision was
elastic, find the beforecollision and
aftercollision kinetic energies: v0
v0
=
=
cosθ 2 cos 45° 2v 0 2
K i = 1 m(3v0 ) = 4.5mv0
2
2 and ( K f = 1 m 5v0
2 )+
2 1
2 (2m )( 2v 0 ) 2 2
= 4.5mv0 Because Ki = Kf, the collision is elastic.
89 •• A 2.0kg ball moving at 10 m/s makes an offcenter collision with a
3.0kg ball that is initially at rest. After the collision, the 2.0kg ball is deflected at
an angle of 30º from its original direction of motion and the 3.0kg ball is moving
at 4.0 m/s. Find the speed of the 2.0kg ball and the direction of the 3.0kg ball
after the collision. Hint: sin 2 α + cos 2 α = 1 .
Picture the Problem Let the direction of motion of the ball that is moving before
the collision be the +x direction and use the subscripts 2 and 3 to designate the
2.0kg and 3.0kg balls, respectively. Applying conservation of momentum to the
collision in both the x and y directions will lead us to two equations in the
unknowns v 2f and θ that we can solve simultaneously. Conservation of Linear Momentum 799
y
v 3f v 2i = 10 m/s
m2 0
= 4. m3 v3i = 0
m3 m/s θ x 30° v2 m2
f =? m2 v2i = m2 v2f cos 30° + m3v3f sin θ Use conservation of momentum in
the x and y directions to relate the
speeds and directions of the balls
before and after the collision: and
0 = m3v3f sin θ − m2 v2f sin 30° Solve the first of these equations for
cosθ to obtain: cosθ = m2 v2i − m2 v2f cos 30°
(1)
m3v3f Solve the second of these equations
for sinθ to obtain: sin θ = m2 v2f sin 30°
m3 v3f (2) Using the hint given in the problem statement, square and add equations (1)
and (2) and simplify the result to obtain the quadratic equation:
2
v2f sin 2 30° + (v2i − v2f cos 30°) =
2 Substituting numerical values and
simplifying yields: 22
m3 v3f
2
m2 2
v2f + (10 m/s − 0.866v 2f ) = 144 m 2 / s 2
2 Use the quadratic formula or your
graphing calculator to obtain: v2f = 5.344 m/s or 11.977 m/s Because the larger of these values
corresponds to there being more
kinetic energy in the system after the
collision than there was before the
collision: v2f = 5.3 m/s 800 Chapter 8
Solving equation (2) for θ yields: ⎡ m2 v 2f sin 30° ⎤
⎥
m3 v3f
⎣
⎦ θ = sin −1 ⎢ ⎡ (2.0 kg ) (5.344 m/s )sin 30° ⎤
(3.0 kg )(4.0 m/s ) ⎥
⎣
⎦ Substitute numerical values and
evaluate θ : θ = sin −1 ⎢
= 26° 90 ••
A particle has initial speed v0. It collides with a second particle with
the same mass that is initially at rest. The first particle is deflected through an
angle φ. Its speed after the collision is v. The second particle recoils, and its
velocity makes an angle θ with the initial direction of the first particle. (a) Show
v sin φ
. (b) Show that if the collision is elastic, then v = v0 cos
that tan θ =
(v 0 − v cos φ ) φ.
Picture the Problem Choose the coordinate system shown in the following
diagram with the +x direction the direction of the initial approach of the projectile
particle. Call V the speed of the target particle after the collision. In Part (a) we
can apply conservation of momentum in the x and y directions to obtain two
equations that we can solve simultaneously for tanθ. In Part (b) we can use
conservation of momentum in vector form and the elasticcollision equation to
show that v = v0cosφ.
r
v y 1 r
v0 1
2 φ x θ 2 r
V (a) Apply conservation of linear
momentum in the x direction to
obtain: v0 = v cos φ + V cos θ (1) Apply conservation of linear
momentum in the y direction to
obtain: v sin φ = V sin θ (2) Solve equation (1) for Vcosθ : V cos θ = v0 − v cos φ (3) Conservation of Linear Momentum 801
Divide equation (2) by equation (3)
to obtain: (b) Noting that the masses of the
particles are equal, apply
conservation of linear momentum
to obtain: V sin θ
v sin φ
=
V cos θ v0 − v cos φ
or
v sin φ
tan θ =
v0 − v cos φ
r
rr
v0 = v + V r
v0 Draw the vector diagram
representing this equation: θ φ
r
V Use the definition of an elastic
collision to obtain: 2
v0 = v 2 + V 2 If this Pythagorean condition is to
hold, the third angle of the triangle
must be a right angle and, using the
definition of the cosine function: r
v v = v0 cos φ *CenterofMass Reference Frame
91 ••
In the centerofmass reference frame a particle with mass m1 and
momentum p1 makes an elastic headon collision with a second particle of mass
′
m2 and momentum p2 = –p1. After the collision its momentum is p1 . Write the
total kinetic energy in terms of m1, m2, and p1 and the total final energy in terms
′
of m1, m2, and p1 , and show that p1' = ± p1 . If p1' = − p1 , the particle is merely
turned around by the collision and leaves with the speed it had initially. What is
the situation for the p1' = + p1 solution?
Picture the Problem The total kinetic energy of a system of particles is the sum
of the kinetic energy of the center of mass and the kinetic energy relative to the
center of mass. The kinetic energy of a particle of mass m is related to its
momentum according to K = p 2 2m . Express the total kinetic energy of
the system: K = K rel + K cm (1) 802 Chapter 8
Relate the kinetic energy relative to
the center of mass to the momenta
of the two particles: K rel = p12
p2
p 2 (m + m2 )
+ 1=1 1
2m1 2m2
2m1m2 Express the kinetic energy of the
center of mass of the two particles: (2 p1 )2 = 2 p12
K cm =
2(m1 + m2 ) m1 + m2 Substitute in equation (1) and
simplify to obtain: K=
= In an elastic collision: p12 (m1 + m2 )
2 p12
+
m1 + m2
2m1 m2
2
p12 ⎡ m12 + 6m1 m2 + m2 ⎤
⎥
⎢
2
2 ⎣ m12 m2 + m1 m2 ⎦ Ki = Kf
=
= Simplify to obtain: 2
p12 ⎡ m12 + 6m1m2 + m2 ⎤
⎢
⎥
2
2 ⎣ m12 m2 + m1m2 ⎦ p'12
2 2
⎡ m12 + 6m1m2 + m2 ⎤
⎢
⎥
2
2
⎣ m1 m2 + m1m2 ⎦ (p ) = ( p )
'2
1 2 '
⇒ p1 = ± p1 1 and if p1' = + p1 , the particles do not
collide.
92 ••
A 3.0kg block is traveling in the −x direction at 5.0 m/s, and a 1.0kg
block is traveling in the +x direction at 3.0 m/s. (a) Find the velocity vcm of the
center of mass. (b) Subtract vcm from the velocity of each block to find the
velocity of each block in the centerofmass reference frame. (c) After they make
a headon elastic collision, the velocity of each block is reversed (in the centerofmass frame). Find the velocity of each block in the centerofmass frame after the
collision. (d) Transform back into the original frame by adding vcm to the velocity
of each block. (e) Check your result by finding the initial and final kinetic
energies of the blocks in the original frame and comparing them.
Picture the Problem Let the numerals 3 and 1 denote the blocks whose masses
r
r
are 3.0 kg and 1.0 kg respectively. We can use ∑ mi v i = Mv cm to find the
i velocity of the centerofmass of the system and simply follow the directions in
the problem step by step. (a) Express the total momentum of
this twoparticle system in terms of
the velocity of its center of mass: r
Solve for vcm : Conservation of Linear Momentum 803
r
r
r
r
P = ∑ mi vi = m1v1 + m3v3
i r
r
= Mvcm = (m1 + m3 )vcm
r
r
r
m3v3 + m1v1
vcm =
m3 + m1 r
Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm :
r
(3.0 kg )(− 5.0 m/s) iˆ + (1.0 kg ) (3.0 m/s) iˆ =
v cm =
3.0 kg + 1.0 kg
(b) Find the velocity of the 3kg
block in the center of mass reference
frame: Find the velocity of the 1kg block in
the center of mass reference frame: (− 3.0 m/s) iˆ rrr
u3 = v3 − vcm ˆ
ˆ
= (− 5.0 m/s ) i − (− 3.0 m/s ) i
= (− 2.0 m/s) iˆ rrr
u1 = v1 − v cm ˆ
ˆ
= (3.0 m/s ) i − (− 3.0 m/s ) i
= (c) Express the aftercollision
velocities of both blocks in the
center of mass reference frame: (d) Transform the aftercollision
velocity of the 3kg block from the
center of mass reference frame to the
original reference frame:
Transform the aftercollision
velocity of the 1kg block from the
center of mass reference frame to the
original reference frame:
(e) Express K i in the original frame
of reference: (6.0 m/s) iˆ r
u'3 = (2.0 m/s) iˆ and
r'
u1 = (− 6.0 m/s) iˆ r' r' r
v3 = u3 + v cm ˆ
ˆ
= (2.0 m/s ) i + (− 3.0 m/s ) i
= (− 1.0 m/s ) iˆ r' r' r
v1 = u1 + v cm
ˆ
ˆ
= (− 6.0 m/s ) i + (− 3.0 m/s ) i
= (− 9.0 m/s ) iˆ 2
K i = 1 m3 v3 + 1 m1v12
2
2 804 Chapter 8
Substitute numerical values and evaluate K i :
Ki = 1
2 [(3.0 kg )(5.0 m/s) 2 + (1.0 kg )(3.0 m/s ) = 42 J
2 Express K i in the original frame of
K f = 1 m3 v' 32 + 1 m1v'12
2
2
reference:
Substitute numerical values and evaluate K f :
Kf = 1
2 [(3.0 kg )(1.0 m/s) 2 + (1.0 kg )(9.0 m/s ) = 42 J
2 93 ••
[SSM] Repeat Problem 92 with the second block having a mass of
5.0 kg and moving to the right at 3.0 m/s.
Picture the Problem Let the numerals 3 and 5 denote the blocks whose masses
r
r
are 3.0 kg and 5.0 kg respectively. We can use ∑ mi v i = Mv cm to find the
i velocity of the centerofmass of the system and simply follow the directions in
the problem step by step.
(a) Express the total momentum of
this twoparticle system in terms of
the velocity of its center of mass: r
r
r
r
P = ∑ mi vi = m3v3 + m5v5
i r
r
= Mvcm = (m3 + m5 ) vcm
r
r
r
m3v3 + m5v5
vcm =
m3 + m5 r
Solve for vcm : r
Substitute numerical values and evaluate vcm :
r
(3.0 kg )(− 5.0 m/s) iˆ + (5.0 kg )(3.0 m/s) iˆ = 0
v cm =
3.0 kg + 5.0 kg
(b) Find the velocity of the 3.0kg
block in the center of mass reference
frame: r
rr
ˆ
u3 = v3 − vcm = (− 5.0 m/s ) i − 0 Find the velocity of the 5.0kg block
in the center of mass reference
frame: r
rr
ˆ
u5 = v5 − vcm = (3.0 m/s ) i − 0 = = (− 5.0 m/s) iˆ (3.0 m/s) iˆ Conservation of Linear Momentum 805 r
ˆ
u'3 = (5.0 m/s ) i (c) Express the aftercollision
velocities of both blocks in the
center of mass reference frame: and
r'
u5 = (− 3.0 m/s) iˆ (d) Transform the aftercollision
velocity of the 3.0kg block from
the center of mass reference frame
to the original reference frame: r' r r
ˆ
v3 = u'3 + vcm = (5.0 m/s ) i + 0 Transform the aftercollision
velocity of the 5.0kg block from
the center of mass reference frame
to the original reference frame: r' r r
ˆ
v5 = u'5 + vcm = (− 3.0 m/s ) i + 0 = = (5.0 m/s) iˆ (− 3.0 m/s) iˆ 2
2
K i = 1 m3 v3 + 1 m5 v5
2
2 (e) Express K i in the original
frame of reference: Substitute numerical values and evaluate K i :
Ki = 1
2 [(3.0 kg )(5.0 m/s) 2 + (5.0 kg )(3.0 m/s ) = 60 J
2 K f = 1 m3 v' 32 + 1 m5 v' 52
2
2 Express K f in the original frame
of reference: Substitute numerical values and evaluate K f :
Kf = 1
2 [(3.0 kg )(5.0 m/s) + (5.0 kg )(3.0 m/s) ] =
2 2 60 J *Systems With Continuously Varying Mass: Rocket Propulsion
94 •
A rocket burns fuel at a rate of 200 kg/s and exhausts the gas at a
relative speed of 6.00 km/s relative to the rocket. Find the magnitude of the thrust
of the rocket.
Picture the Problem The thrust of a rocket Fth depends on the burn rate of its
fuel dm/dt and the relative speed of its exhaust gases uex according to
Fth = dm dt uex . 806 Chapter 8
Using its definition, relate the
rocket’s thrust to the relative speed
of its exhaust gases: dm
uex
dt Fth = Fth = (200 kg/s )(6.00 km/s ) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fth: = 1.20 MN 95 •• A rocket has an initial mass of 30,000 kg, of which 80 percent is the
fuel. It burns fuel at a rate of 200 kg/s and exhausts its gas at a relative speed of
1.80 km/s. Find (a) the thrust of the rocket, (b) the time until burnout, and (c) its
speed at burnout assuming it moves straight upward near the surface of Earth.
Assume that g is constant and neglect any effects of air resistance.
Picture the Problem The thrust of a rocket Fth depends on the burn rate of its
fuel dm/dt and the relative speed of its exhaust gases uex according to
Fth = dm dt uex . The final velocity vf of a rocket depends on the relative speed of its exhaust gases uex, its payload to initial mass ratio mf/m0 and its burn time
according to vf = −uex ln (mf m0 ) − gt b .
(a) Using its definition, relate the
rocket’s thrust to the relative speed
of its exhaust gases: Fth = dm
uex
dt Fth = (200 kg/s )(1.80 km/s ) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Fth: = 360 kN
0.8m0
mfuel
=
dm / dt dm / dt (b) Relate the time to burnout to the
mass of the fuel and its burn rate: tb = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate t b : tb = (c) Relate the final velocity of a
rocket to its initial mass, exhaust
velocity, and burn time: ⎛m ⎞
vf = −uex ln⎜ f ⎟ − gtb
⎜m ⎟
⎝ 0⎠ (0.80)(30,000 kg ) =
200 kg/s 120 s Substitute numerical values and evaluate vf: ( ) ⎛1⎞
vf = −(1.80 km/s )ln⎜ ⎟ − 9.81 m/s 2 (120 s ) = 1.72 km/s
⎝5⎠ Conservation of Linear Momentum 807
96 ••
The specific impulse of a rocket propellant is defined as Isp = Fth/(Rg),
where Fth is the thrust of the propellant, g the magnitude of freefall acceleration,
and R the rate at which the propellant is burned. The rate depends predominantly
on the type and exact mixture of the propellant. (a) Show that the specific impulse
has the dimension of time. (b) Show that uex = gIsp, where uex is the relative speed
of the exhaust. (c) What is the specific impulse (in seconds) of the propellant used
in the Saturn V rocket of Example 816.
Picture the Problem We can use the dimensions of thrust, burn rate, and
acceleration to show that the dimension of specific impulse is time. Combining
the definitions of rocket thrust and specific impulse will lead us to uex = gI sp . M⋅L
2
[F ]
= th = T
=T
[R][g ] M ⋅ L
T T2 (a) Express the dimension of specific
impulse in terms of the dimensions
of Fth, R, and g: [I ] (b) From the definition of rocket
thrust we have: Fth = Ruex ⇒ uex = Substitute for Fth to obtain: (c) Solve equation (1) for Isp and
substitute for uex to obtain:
From Example 821 we have: Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Isp: sp uex = RgI sp I sp = Fth
R Fth
Rg R = gI sp (1) R = 1.384×104 kg/s
and
Fth = 3.4×106 N
I sp = 3.4 × 10 6 N
1.384 × 10 4 kg/s 9.81 m/s 2 ( )( ) = 25 s
••• [SSM] The initial thrusttoweight ratio τ0 of a rocket is
τ0 = Fth/(m0 g), where Fth is the rocket’s thrust and m0 the initial mass of the
97 rocket, including the propellant. (a) For a rocket launched straight up from Earth’s
surface, show that τ0 = 1 + (a0/g), where a0 is the initial acceleration of the rocket.
For manned rocket flight, τ0 cannot be made much larger than 4 for the comfort
and safety of the astronauts. (The astronauts will feel that their weight as the
rocket lifts off is equal to τ0 times their normal weight.) (b) Show that the final
velocity of a rocket launched from Earth’s surface, in terms of τ0 and Isp (see
Problem 96) can be written as 808 Chapter 8
⎡ ⎛m ⎞ 1 ⎛ m ⎞⎤
vf = gIsp ⎢1n⎜ 0 ⎟ − ⎜1 − f ⎟ ⎥
⎢
⎥
⎣ ⎝ mf ⎠ τ 0 ⎝ m0 ⎠ ⎦
where mf is the mass of the rocket (not including the spent propellant). (c) Using a
spreadsheet program or graphing calculator, graph vf as a function of the mass
ratio m0/mf for Isp = 250 s and τ0 = 2 for values of the mass ratio from 2 to 10.
(Note that the mass ratio cannot be less than 1.) (d) To lift a rocket into orbit, a
final velocity after burnout of vf = 7.0 km/s is needed. Calculate the mass ratio
required of a single stage rocket to do this, using the values of specific impulse
and thrust ratio given in Part (b). For engineering reasons, it is difficult to make a
rocket with a mass ratio much greater than 10. Can you see why multistage
rockets are usually used to put payloads into orbit around Earth?
Picture the Problem We can use the rocket equation and the definition of rocket
thrust to show that τ 0 = 1 + a0 g . In Part (b) we can express the burn time tb in
terms of the initial and final masses of the rocket and the rate at which the fuel
burns, and then use this equation to express the rocket’s final velocity in terms of
Isp, τ0, and the mass ratio m0/mf. In Part (d) we’ll need to use trialanderror
methods or a graphing calculator to solve the transcendental equation giving vf as
a function of m0/mf. (a) The rocket equation is: − mg + Ru ex = ma From the definition of rocket thrust
we have: Fth = Ruex Substitute for Ruex to obtain: − mg + Fth = ma Solve for Fth at takeoff: Fth = m0 g + m0 a0 Divide both sides of this equation by
m0g to obtain: Fth
a
= 1+ 0
m0 g
g Because τ 0 = Fth /( m0 g ) : (b) Use Equation 839 to express the
final speed of a rocket that starts
from rest with mass m0:
Express the burn time in terms of
the burn rate R (assumed constant): τ 0 = 1+ a0
g ⎛m ⎞
vf = u ex ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − gt b ,
⎜m ⎟
⎝ f⎠
where t b is the burn time. tb = m0 − mf m0 ⎛ mf ⎞
⎜1 −
⎟
=
R
R ⎜ m0 ⎟
⎝
⎠ (1) Conservation of Linear Momentum 809
Multiply t b by one in the form
gFth
and simplify to obtain:
gFth gFth m0 ⎛ mf ⎞
⎜1 −
⎟
gFth R ⎜ m0 ⎟
⎝
⎠
gm0 Fth ⎛ mf ⎞
⎜1 −
⎟
=
Fth gR ⎜ m0 ⎟
⎝
⎠ tb = = I sp ⎛ mf ⎞
⎜1 −
⎟
τ 0 ⎜ m0 ⎟
⎝
⎠ Substitute in equation (1): ⎛ m ⎞ gI ⎛ m ⎞
vf = uex ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − sp ⎜1 − f ⎟
⎜m ⎟ τ ⎜ m ⎟
0⎝
0⎠
⎝ f⎠ From Problem 96 we have: u ex = gI sp , where uex is the exhaust velocity of the
propellant.
Substitute for uex and factor to
obtain: ⎛ m ⎞ gI ⎛ m ⎞
vf = gI sp ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − sp ⎜1 − f ⎟
⎜m ⎟ τ ⎜ m ⎟
0⎝
0⎠
⎝ f⎠
⎡ ⎛ m ⎞ 1 ⎛ m ⎞⎤
= gI sp ⎢ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − ⎜1 − f ⎟⎥
⎜⎟
⎟
⎜
⎣ ⎝ mf ⎠ τ 0 ⎝ m0 ⎠⎦ (c) A spreadsheet program to calculate the final velocity of the rocket as a
function of the mass ratio m0/mf is shown below. The constants used in the
velocity function and the formulas used to calculate the final velocity are as
follows:
Cell
B1
B2
B3
D9
E8 Content/Formula
250
9.81
2
D8 + 0.25
$B$2*$B$1*(LOG(D8) −
(1/$B$3)*(1/D8)) 1
2
3
4
5
6
7 A
B
C
Isp = 250 s
g = 9.81 m/s2
τ0 = 2 Algebraic Form
Isp
g τ0 m0/mf
⎡ ⎛ m ⎞ 1 ⎛ m ⎞⎤
gI sp ⎢ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − ⎜1 − f ⎟⎥
⎜
⎟
⎜
⎟
⎣ ⎝ mf ⎠ τ 0 ⎝ m0 ⎠ ⎦ D E mass ratio
vf
2.00
1.252E+02
2.25
3.187E+02 810 Chapter 8
8
9
10 2.50
2.75
3.00 4.854E+02
6.316E+02
7.614E+02 34
35
36
37
38
39 9.00
9.25
9.50
9.75
10.00
725.00 2.204E+03
2.237E+03
2.269E+03
2.300E+03
2.330E+03
7.013E+03 A graph of final velocity as a function of mass ratio follows.
2.5 v f (km/s) 2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 m 0/m f (d) Substitute the data given in part (c) in the equation derived in Part (b) to
obtain:
⎛ ⎛ m ⎞ 1 ⎛ m ⎞⎞
7.00 km/s = 9.81m/s 2 (250 s )⎜ ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − ⎜1 − f ⎟ ⎟
⎜ ⎜ m ⎟ 2 ⎜ m ⎟⎟
0 ⎠⎠
⎝
⎝ ⎝ f⎠ ( ) or
2.854 = ln x − 0.5 +
Use trialanderror methods or a
graphing calculator to solve this
transcendental equation for the root
greater than 1: 0.5
where x = m0/mf.
x
x ≈ 28 , a value considerably larger than the practical limit of 10 for singlestage rockets. 98 ••
The height that a model rocket launched from Earth’s surface can
reach can be estimated by assuming that the burn time is short compared to the
total flight time; the rocket is therefore in freefall for most of the flight. (This
estimate neglects the burn time in calculations of both time and displacement.)
For a model rocket with specific impulse Isp = 100 s, mass ratio m0/mf = 1.20, and Conservation of Linear Momentum 811
initial thrusttoweight ratio τ0 = 5.00 (these parameters are defined in Problems
96 and 97), estimate (a) the height the rocket can reach, and (b) the total flight
time. (c) Justify the assumption used in the estimates by comparing the flight time
from Part (b) to the time it takes to consume the fuel.
Picture the Problem We can use the velocityatburnout equation from Problem
96 to find vf and constantacceleration equations to approximate the maximum
height the rocket will reach and its total flight time. (a) Assuming constant acceleration,
relate the maximum height reached
by the model rocket to its timetotopoftrajectory: 2
h = 1 gt top
2 From Problem 96 we have: ⎛ ⎛ m ⎞ 1 ⎛ m ⎞⎞
vf = gI sp ⎜ ln⎜ 0 ⎟ − ⎜1 − f ⎟ ⎟
⎜ ⎜ m ⎟ τ ⎜ m ⎟⎟
0 ⎠⎠
⎝
⎝ ⎝ f⎠ (1) Evaluate the velocity at burnout vf for Isp = 100 s, m0/mf = 1.2, and τ = 5:
⎡
1⎛
1 ⎞⎤
vf = 9.81 m/s 2 (100 s ) ⎢ln (1.2) − ⎜1 −
⎟ = 146 m/s
5 ⎝ 1.2 ⎠⎥
⎣
⎦ ( ) Assuming that the time for the fuel
to burn up is short compared to the
total flight time, find the time to the
top of the trajectory: t top = vf
146 m/s
=
= 14.9 s
g 9.81 m/s 2 Substitute in equation (1) and
evaluate h: h= (9.81m/s )(14.9 s ) (b) Find the total flight time from the
time it took the rocket to reach its
maximum height: t flight = 2t top = 2(14.9 s ) = 29.8 s (c) The fuel burn time t b is: 1
2 2 I sp ⎛ m f
⎜1 −
τ ⎜ m0
⎝
= 3.33 s tb = 2 = 1.09 km ⎞ 100 s ⎛
1⎞
⎟=
⎜1 −
⎟
⎟
5 ⎝ 1.2 ⎠
⎠ 812 Chapter 8
Because this burn time is approximately onefifth of the total flight time, we can’t
expect the answer we obtain in Part (b) to be very accurate. It should, however, be
good to about thirty percent accuracy, as the maximum distance the model rocket
could possibly move in this time is 1 vf tb = 244 m , assuming constant acceleration
2
until burnout. General Problems
99 • [SSM]
A 250g modeltrain car traveling at 0.50 m/s links up with a
400g car that is initially at rest. What is the speed of the cars immediately after
they link up? Find the pre and postcollision kinetic energies of the twocar
system.
Picture the Problem Let the direction the 250g car is moving before the
collision be the +x direction. Let the numeral 1 refer to the 250kg car, the
numeral 2 refer to the 400kg car, and V represent the velocity of the linked cars.
Let the system include Earth and the cars. We can use conservation of momentum
to find their speed after they have linked together and the definition of kinetic
energy to find their pre and postcollision kinetic energies. Use conservation of momentum to
relate the speeds of the cars
immediately before and
immediately after their collision: pix = p fx
or Substitute numerical values and
evaluate V: V= m1v1 = (m1 + m2 )V ⇒ V = m1v1
m1 + m2 (0.250 kg )(0.50 m/s) = 0.192 m/s
0.250 kg + 0.400 kg = 0.19 m/s
Find the precollision kinetic energy
of the cars: K pre = 1 m1v12 =
2 Find the postcollision kinetic
energy of the coupled cars: K post = 1
2 (0.250 kg )(0.50 m/s)2 = 31 mJ (m1 + m2 )V 2
2
= 1 (0.250 kg + 0.400 kg )(0.192 m/s )
2
1
2 = 12 mJ 100 •
A 250g model train car traveling at 0.50 m/s heads toward a 400g car
that is initially at rest. (a) Find the kinetic energy of the twocar system. (b) Find
the velocity of each car in the centerofmass reference frame, and use these
velocities to calculate the kinetic energy of the twocar system in the centerof Conservation of Linear Momentum 813
mass reference. (c) Find the kinetic energy associated with the motion of the
center of mass of the system. (d) Compare your answer for Part (a) with the sum
of your answers for Parts (b) and (c).
Picture the Problem Let the direction the 250g car is moving before the
collision be the +x direction. Let the numeral 1 refer to the 250kg car and the
numeral 2 refer to the 400g car and the system include Earth and the cars. We
can use conservation of momentum to find their speed after they have linked
together and the definition of kinetic energy to find their pre and postcollision
kinetic energies. (a) The precollision kinetic energy
of the twocar system is: (b) Relate the velocity of the center
of mass to the total momentum of
the system: K pre = 1 m1v12 =
2 1
2 (0.250 kg )(0.50 m/s)2 = 31.3 mJ = 31 mJ r
r
r
Psys = ∑ mi v i = mv cm
i m1v1 + m2 v2
m1 + m2 Solve for vcm : vcm = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vcm : vcm = Find the initial velocity of the 250g
car relative to the velocity of the
center of mass: u1 = v1 − vcm = 0.50 m/s − 0.192 m/s Find the initial velocity of the
400g car relative to the velocity
of the center of mass: u 2 = v2 − vcm = 0 m/s − 0.192 m/s Express the precollision kinetic
energy of the system relative to the
center of mass: 2
K pre,rel = 1 m1u12 + 1 m2 u 2
2
2 Substitute numerical values and
evaluate K pre,rel : K pre,rel = (0.250 kg )(0.50 m/s) = 0.192 m/s
0.250 kg + 0.400 kg = 0.31m/s = − 0.19 m/s (0.250 kg )(0.308 m/s)2
2
+ 1 (0.400 kg )(− 0.192 m/s )
2 1
2 = 19 mJ 814 Chapter 8
(c) Express the kinetic energy of the
center of mass: 2
K cm = 1 Mvcm
2 Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Kcm: K cm = (d) Relate the precollision kinetic
energy of the system to its precollision kinetic energy relative to
the center of mass and the kinetic
energy of the center of mass: K i = K i,rel + K cm 1
2 (0.650 kg )(0.192 m/s)2 = 12 mJ = 19.2 mJ + 12.0 mJ
= 31.2 mJ
and
K i = K i,rel + K cm 101 ••
A 1500kg car traveling north at 70 km/h collides at an intersection
with a 2000kg car traveling west at 55 km/h. The two cars stick together.
(a) What is the total momentum of the system before the collision? (b) Find the
magnitude and direction of the velocity of the wreckage just after the collision.
Picture the Problem Let east be the positive x direction and north the positive y
direction. Include both cars and Earth in the system and let the numeral 1 denote
the 1500kg car and the numeral 2 the 2000kg car. Because the net external force
acting on the system is zero, momentum is conserved in this perfectly inelastic
collision. (a) Express the total momentum of
the system: rrr
r
r
p = p1 + p2 = m1v1 + m2 v 2
ˆ
=mv ˆ−m v i
j
11 22 r
Substitute numerical values and evaluate p :
r
ˆ
p = (1500 kg ) (70 km/h ) ˆ − (2000 kg ) (55 km/h ) i
j
ˆ
= − 1.10 × 105 kg ⋅ km/h i + 1.05 ×105 kg ⋅ km/h ˆ
j ( ( = − 1.1×105 )(
ˆ
kg ⋅ km/h ) i + (1.1×10 (b) The velocity of the wreckage in
terms of the total momentum of the
system is given by: 5 ) ) j
kg ⋅ km/h ˆ r
rr
p
v f = v cm =
M Conservation of Linear Momentum 815
r
Substitute numerical values and evaluate v f : ( ) ( ) ˆ
r − 1.10 × 105 kg ⋅ km/h i 1.05 × 105 kg ⋅ km/h ˆ
j
vf =
+
1500 kg + 2000 kg
1500 kg + 2000 kg
ˆ
= −(31.4 km/h ) i + (30.0 km/h ) ˆ
j (31.4 km/h )2 + (30.0 km/h )2 Find the magnitude of the velocity of
the wreckage: vf = Find the direction the wreckage
moves: θ = tan −1 ⎢ = 43 km/h
⎡ 30.0 km/h ⎤
⎥ = −43.7°
⎣ − 31.4 km/h ⎦ The direction of the wreckage is 46° west of north.
102 ••
A 60kg woman stands on the back of a 6.0mlong, 120kg raft that is
floating at rest in still water. The raft is 0.50 m from a fixed pier, as shown in
Figure 852. (a) The woman walks to the front of the raft and stops. How far is
the raft from the pier now? (b) While the woman walks, she maintains a constant
speed of 3.0 m/s relative to the raft. Find the total kinetic energy of the system
(woman plus raft), and compare with the kinetic energy if the woman walked at
3.0 m/s on a raft tied to the pier. (c) Where do these kinetic energies come from,
and where do they go when the woman stops at the front of the raft? (d) On land,
the woman puts a lead shot 6.0 m. She stands at the back of the raft, aims forward,
and puts the shot so that just after it leaves her hand, it has the same velocity
relative to her as it did when she threw it from the ground. Approximately, where
does her shot land?
Picture the Problem Take the origin to be at the initial position of the righthand
end of raft and let the positive x direction be to the left. Let ″w″ denote the woman
and ″r″ the raft, d be the distance of the end of the raft from the pier after the
woman has walked to its front. The raft moves to the left as the woman moves to
the right; with the center of mass of the womanraft system remaining fixed
(because Fext,net = 0). The diagram shows the initial (xw,i) and final (xw,f) positions
of the woman as well as the initial (xr_cm,i) and final (xr_cm,f) positions of the center
of mass of the raft both before and after the woman has walked to the front of the
raft. 816 Chapter 8
CM x × xr_cm,i
xw i = 6 m
,
xC
M 0 0.5 m CM x (a) Express the distance of the raft
from the pier after the woman has
walked to the front of the raft: × xr_cm,f
xr_cm,i P
I
E
R 0 xw f
, d d = 0.50 m + x w, f Express xcm before the woman has
walked to the front of the raft: xcm = Express xcm after the woman has
walked to the front of the raft: xcm = (1) mw xw,i + mr xr_cm, i
m w + mr
mw xw,f + mr xr_cm,f
m w + mr Because Fext,net = 0, the center of
mass remains fixed and we can
equate these two expressions for xcm
to obtain: mw xw ,i + mr xr_cm,i = mw xw,f + mr xr_cm,f Solve for x w,f : xw,f = xw,i − From the figure it can be seen that
x r_cm,f − xr_cm,i = x w,f . Substitute xw,f = mr
(xr_cm,f − xr_cm,i )
mw mw xw,i
m w + mr x w,f for x r_cm,f − x r_cm,i to obtain: (60 kg )(6.0 m ) = 2.0 m Substitute numerical values and
evaluate x w,f : x w,f = Substitute in equation (1) to obtain: d = 2.0 m + 0.50 m = 2.5 m (b) Express the total kinetic energy of
the system: 2
K tot = 1 mw vw + 1 mr vr2
2
2 60 kg + 120 kg Conservation of Linear Momentum 817
Noting that the elapsed time is 2.0 s,
find vw and vr: vw = x w,f − x w,i Δt
2.0 m − 6.0 m
=
= −2.0 m/s
2.0 s relative to the dock, and
x − xr,i
vr = r,f
Δt
2.50 m − 0.50 m
=
= 1.0 m/s
2.0 s
also relative to the dock.
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Ktot: K tot = (60 kg )(− 2.0 m/s)2
2
+ 1 (120 kg )(1.0 m/s )
2 1
2 = 0.18 kJ Evaluate K with the raft tied to
the pier: 2
K tot = 1 m w v w =
2 1
2 (60 kg )(3.0 m/s)2 = 0.27 kJ (c) All the kinetic energy derives from the chemical energy of the woman and,
assuming she stops via static friction, the kinetic energy is transformed into her
internal energy.
(d) After the shot leaves the woman’s hand, the raftwoman system constitutes an
inertial reference frame. In that frame, the shot has the same initial velocity as did
the shot that had a range of 6.0 m in the reference frame of the land. Thus, in the
raftwoman frame, the shot also has a range of 6.0 m and lands at the front of the
raft.
A 1.0kg steel ball and a 2.0m cord of negligible mass make up a
103 ••
simple pendulum that can pivot without friction about the point O, as in Figure 853. This pendulum is released from rest in a horizontal position and when the ball
is at its lowest point it strikes a 1.0kg block sitting at rest on a shelf. Assume that
the collision is perfectly elastic and take the coefficient of kinetic friction between
the block and shelf to be 0.10. (a) What is the velocity of the block just after
impact? (b) How far does the block slide before coming to rest (assuming the
shelf is long enough)?
Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the
elevation of the 1.0kg block. We can use conservation of energy to find the
speed of the bob just before its perfectly elastic collision with the block and 818 Chapter 8
conservation of momentum to find the speed of the block immediately after the
collision. We’ll apply Newton’s second law to find the acceleration of the sliding
block and use a constantacceleration equation to find how far it slides before
coming to rest. ΔK + ΔU = 0 (a) Use conservation of energy to
find the speed of the bob just before
its collision with the block: or Because Ki = Uf = 0: 1
2 Kf − Ki + U f − U i = 0
2
mball vball + mball gΔh = 0 and
vball = 2 gΔh ( ) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vball: vball = 2 9.81m/s 2 (2.0 m ) = 6.26 m/s Because the collision is perfectly
elastic and the ball and block have
the same mass: vblock = vball = 6.3 m/s (b) Using a constantacceleration
equation, relate the displacement of
the block to its acceleration and
initial speed: vf2 = vi2 + 2ablock Δx Solving for Δx yields: Apply r
r
F = ma to the sliding
∑ block: or, because vf = 0,
0 = vi2 + 2a block Δx
2
− vblock
− vi2
Δx =
=
2ablock 2ablock ∑F x and ∑F y Using the definition of fk (=μkFn)
eliminate fk and Fn between the
two equations and solve for ablock:
Substitute for ablock to obtain: = − f k = mablock
= Fn − mblock g = 0 ablock = − μ k g Δx = 2
v2
− vblock
= block
− 2μ k g 2μ k g Conservation of Linear Momentum 819
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Δx: Δx = (6.26 m/s)2 =
2(0.10) (9.81m/s 2 ) 20 m 104 ••
Figure 854 shows a World War I cannon mounted on a railcar so that
it will project a shell at an angle of 30º. With the car initially at rest, the cannon
fires a 200kg projectile at 125 m/s. (All values are for the frame of reference of
the track.) Now consider a system composed of a cannon, shell, and railcar, all on
the frictionless track. (a) Will the total vector momentum of that system be the
same just before and just after the shell is fired? Explain your answer. (b) If the
mass of the railcar plus cannon is 5000 kg, what will be the recoil velocity of the
car along the track after the firing? (c) The shell is observed to rise to a maximum
height of 180 m as it moves through its trajectory. At this point, its speed is 80.0
m/s. On the basis of this information, calculate the amount of thermal energy
produced by air friction on the shell on its way from firing to this maximum
height.
Picture the Problem We can use conservation of momentum in the horizontal
direction to find the recoil velocity of the car along the track after the firing.
Because the shell will neither rise as high nor be moving as fast at the top of its
trajectory as it would be in the absence of air friction, we can apply the workenergy theorem to find the amount of thermal energy produced by the air friction. (a) No. The vertical reaction force of the rails is an external force and so the
momentum of the system will not be conserved.
(b) Use conservation of momentum
in the horizontal (x) direction to
obtain: Δp x = 0
or
mv cos 30° − Mvrecoil = 0 Solving for vrecoil yields: vrecoil = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vrecoil : vrecoil = mv cos 30°
M (200 kg )(125 m/s)cos30°
5000 kg = 4.3 m/s
(c) Using the workenergy theorem,
relate the thermal energy produced
by air friction to the change in the
energy of the system: Wext = Wf = ΔEsys = ΔU + ΔK 820 Chapter 8
Substitute for ΔU and ΔK to obtain: Wext = mgyf − mgyi + 1 mvf2 − 1 mvi2
2
2 ( = mg ( yf − yi ) + 1 m vf2 − vi2
2 ) Substitute numerical values and evaluate Wext: ( ) [ Wext = (200 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (180 m ) + 1 (200 kg ) (80.0 m/s ) − (125 m/s )
2
2 2 = − 569 kJ 105 ••• [SSM] One popular, if dangerous, classroom demonstration involves
holding a baseball an inch or so directly above a basketball, holding the basketball
a few feet above a hard floor, and dropping the two balls simultaneously. The two
balls will collide just after the basketball bounces from the floor; the baseball will
then rocket off into the ceiling tiles with a hard ″thud″ while the basketball will
stop in midair. (The author of this problem once broke a light doing this.)
(a) Assuming that the collision of the basketball with the floor is elastic, what is
the relation between the velocities of the balls just before they collide?
(b) Assuming the collision between the two balls is elastic, use the result of Part
(a) and the conservation of momentum and energy to show that, if the basketball
is three times as heavy as the baseball, the final velocity of the basketball will be
zero. (This is approximately the true mass ratio, which is why the demonstration
is so dramatic.) (c) If the speed of the baseball is v just before the collision, what
is its speed just after the collision?
Picture the Problem Let the numeral 1
refer to the basketball and the numeral
2 to the baseball. The lefthand side of
the diagram shows the balls after the
basketball’s elastic collision with the
floor and just before they collide. The
righthand side of the diagram shows
the balls just after their collision. We
can apply conservation of momentum
and the definition of an elastic collision
to obtain equations relating the initial
and final velocities of the colliding
balls that we can solve for v1f and v2f. r
v 2f m2
r
v 2i r
v1i
m1 m2 r
v1f
m1 (a) Because both balls are in freefall, and both are in the air for the same amount
of time, they have the same velocity just before the basketball rebounds. After the
basketball rebounds elastically, its velocity will have the same magnitude, but the
opposite direction than just before it hit the ground. The velocity of the basketball
will be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the velocity of the baseball. Conservation of Linear Momentum 821
(b) Apply conservation of linear
momentum to the collision of the
balls to obtain:
Use conservation of mechanical
energy to set the speed of recession
equal to the negative of the speed of
approach: m1v1f + m2 v2f = m1v1i + m2 v2i (1) v2f − v1f = −(v1i − v2i )
or
v1f − v2f = v2i − v1i (2) Multiply equation (2) by m2 and
add it to equation (1) to obtain: (m1 + m2 )v1f = (m1 − m2 )v1i + 2m2v2i Solve for v1f to obtain: m1 − m2
2m2
v1i +
v2 i
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
or, because v2i = −v1i,
2m2
m − m2
v1f = 1
v1i −
v1i
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
v1f = =
For m1 = 3m2 and v1i = v: v1f = m1 − 3m2
v1i
m1 + m2
3m2 − 3m2
v= 0
3m2 + m2 (c) Multiply equation (2) by m1
and subtract it from equation (1)
to obtain: (m1 + m2 )v2f = (m2 − m1 )v2i + 2m1v1i Solve for v2f to obtain: m − m1
2m1
v1i + 2
v 2i
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
or, because v2i = −v1i,
m − m1
2m1
v2 f =
v1i − 2
v1i
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
v2 f = =
For m1 = 3m2 and v1i = v: v2 f = 3m1 − m2
v1i
m1 + m2
3(3m2 ) − m2
v = 2v
3m2 + m2 106 ••• (a) Referring to Problem 105, if we held a third ball above the baseball
and basketball, and wanted both the basketball and baseball to stop in midair,
what should the ratio of the mass of the top ball to the mass of the baseball be? 822 Chapter 8
(b) If the speed of the top ball is v just before the collision, what is its speed just
after the collision?
Picture the Problem In Problem 105
only two balls are dropped. They
collide head on, each moving at
speed v, and the collision is elastic.
In this problem, as it did in Problem
105, the solution involves using the
conservation of momentum equation
m1v1f + m2 v2 f = m1v1i + m2 v2i and the
elastic
collision
equation
v1f − v2 f = v2i − v1i where the numeral
1 refers to the baseball, and the
numeral 2 to the top ball. The
diagram shows the balls just before
and just after their collision. From
Problem 105 we know that v1i = 2v
and v2i = −v. (a) Express the final speed v1f of the
baseball as a function of its initial
speed v1i and the initial speed of the
top ball v2i (see Problem 64):
Substitute for v1i and , v2i to obtain: Divide the numerator and
denominator of each term by m2 to
introduce the mass ratio of the upper
ball to the lower ball:
Set the final speed of the baseball v1f
equal to zero and let x represent the
mass ratio m1/m2 to obtain:
Solving for x yields: (b) Apply the second of the two
equations in Problem 64 to the
collision between the top ball and
the baseball: r
v 2f m2
r
v 2i m2 r
v1i r
v1f = 0 m1 v1f = 2m2
m1 − m2
v2 i
v1i +
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 v1f = m1 − m2
(2v ) + 2m2 (− v )
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 m1
−1
m2
(2v ) + m 2 (− v )
v1f =
m1
1
+1
+1
m2
m2
0= x −1
(2v ) + 2 (− v )
x +1
x +1 x= m1
=
m2 v2 f = 1
2 2m1
m − m1
v 2i
v1i + 2
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 m1 Conservation of Linear Momentum 823
Substitute v1i = 2v and v2i = −v to
obtain: v2 f = 2m1
(2v ) + m2 − m1 (− v )
m1 + m2
m1 + m2 In part (a) we showed that m2 = 2m1.
Substitute and simplify to obtain: v3f = 2(2m1 )
(2v ) − 2m1 − m1 v
m1 + 2m1
m1 + 2m1 = 7
3 v 107 ••• [SSM]
In the ″slingshot effect,″ the transfer of energy in an elastic
collision is used to boost the energy of a space probe so that it can escape from
the solar system. All speeds are relative to an inertial frame in which the center of
the sun remains at rest. Figure 855 shows a space probe moving at 10.4 km/s
toward Saturn, which is moving at 9.6 km/s toward the probe. Because of the
gravitational attraction between Saturn and the probe, the probe swings around
Saturn and heads back in the opposite direction with speed vf. (a) Assuming this
collision to be a onedimensional elastic collision with the mass of Saturn much
greater than that of the probe, find vf. (b) By what factor is the kinetic energy of
the probe increased? Where does this energy come from?
Picture the Problem Let the direction the probe is moving after its elastic
collision with Saturn be the positive direction. The probe gains kinetic energy at
the expense of the kinetic energy of Saturn. We’ll relate the speed of approach
relative to the center of mass to urec and then to v. The +x direction is also the
direction of the motion of Saturn. (a) Relate the speed of recession to
the speed of recession relative to
the center of mass: v = u rec + vcm Find the speed of approach: uapp = −9.6 km/s − 10.4 km/s (1) = −20.0 km/s
Relate the relative speed of
approach to the relative speed of
recession for an elastic collision: u rec = −uapp = 20.0 km/s Because Saturn is so much more
massive than the space probe: vcm = vSaturn = 9.6 km/s Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) and evaluate v: v = 20 km/s + 9.6 km/s = 30 km/s 824 Chapter 8
2 (b) Express the ratio of the final
kinetic energy to the initial kinetic
energy and simplify: 2
K f 1 Mvrec ⎛ vrec ⎞
2
=1
=⎜
2
⎜v ⎟
⎟
Ki
⎝ i⎠
2 Mvi Substitute numerical values and
evaluate Kf/Ki: K f ⎛ 29.6 km/s ⎞
⎟ = 8.1
=⎜
K i ⎜ 10.4 km/s ⎟
⎝
⎠ 2 The energy comes from an immeasurably small slowing of Saturn.
108 ••
A 13kg block is at rest on a level floor. A 400g glob of putty is
thrown at the block so that the putty travels horizontally, hits the block, and sticks
to it. The block and putty slide 15 cm along the floor. If the coefficient of kinetic
friction is 0.40, what is the initial speed of the putty?
Picture the Problem Let the system include the block, the putty, and Earth. Then
Fext,net = 0 and momentum is conserved in this perfectly inelastic collision. We’ll
use conservation of momentum to relate the aftercollision velocity of the block
plus blob and conservation of energy to find their aftercollision velocity. Noting that, because this is a
perfectly elastic collision, the final
velocity of the block plus blob is the
velocity of the center of mass, use
conservation of momentum to relate
the velocity of the center of mass to
the velocity of the glob before the
collision: pi = pf
or Use conservation of energy to find
the initial energy of the block plus
glob: ΔK + ΔU + Wf = 0
Because ΔU = Kf = 0,
2
− 1 Mvcm + f k Δx = 0
2 Because fk = μkMg: 2
− 1 Mvcm + μ k MgΔx = 0
2 Solve for vcm to obtain: vcm = 2 μ k gΔx Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vcm : vcm = 2(0.40) 9.81m/s 2 (0.15 m ) ⎛M ⎞
⎟v
mgl vgl = Mvcm ⇒ vgl = ⎜
(1)
⎜ m ⎟ cm
gl ⎠
⎝
where M = mgl + mbl . ( = 1.08 m/s ) Conservation of Linear Momentum 825
Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) and evaluate vgl : ⎛ 13 kg + 0.400 kg ⎞
⎟ (1.08 m/s )
vgl = ⎜
⎜
⎟
0.400 kg
⎝
⎠
= 36 m/s 109 ••• [SSM] Your accident reconstruction team has been hired by the local
police to analyze the following accident. A careless driver rearended a car that
was halted at a stop sign. Just before impact, the driver slammed on his brakes,
locking the wheels. The driver of the struck car had his foot solidly on the brake
pedal, locking his brakes. The mass of the struck car was 900 kg, and that of the
initially moving vehicle was 1200 kg. On collision, the bumpers of the two cars
meshed. Police determine from the skid marks that after the collision the two cars
moved 0.76 m together. Tests revealed that the coefficient of kinetic friction
between the tires and pavement was 0.92. The driver of the moving car claims
that he was traveling at less than 15 km/h as he approached the intersection. Is he
telling the truth?
Picture the Problem Let the direction the moving car was traveling before the
collision be the +x direction. Let the numeral 1 denote this car and the numeral 2
the car that is stopped at the stop sign and the system include both cars and Earth.
We can use conservation of momentum to relate the speed of the initiallymoving
car to the speed of the meshed cars immediately after their perfectly inelastic
collision and conservation of energy to find the initial speed of the meshed cars. Using conservation of momentum,
relate the beforecollision speed to
the aftercollision speed of the
meshed cars:
Solving for v1 and simplifying
yields:
Using conservation of energy, relate
the initial kinetic energy of the
meshed cars to the work done by
friction in bringing them to a stop: pi = pf
or m1v1 = (m1 + m2 )V v1 = ⎛ m⎞
m1 + m2
V = ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ V
⎜ m⎟
m1
1⎠
⎝ (1) ΔK + ΔEthermal = 0
or, because Kf = 0 and ΔEthermal = fΔs,
− K i + f k Δs = 0 Substitute for Ki and, using
fk = μkFn = μkMg, eliminate fk to
obtain: − 1 MV 2 + μ k MgΔx = 0
2 Solving for V yields: V = 2 μ k gΔx 826 Chapter 8
⎛ m⎞
v1 = ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ 2 μ k gΔx
⎜
m1 ⎟
⎝
⎠ Substitute for V in equation (1) to
obtain: Substitute numerical values and evaluate v1:
⎛
900 kg ⎞
2
v1 = ⎜1 +
⎜ 1200 kg ⎟ 2(0.92) 9.81 m/s (0.76 m ) = 6.48 m/s = 23 km/h
⎟
⎝
⎠ ( ) The driver was not telling the truth. He was traveling at 23 km/h.
110 ••
A pendulum consists of a compact 0.40kg bob attached to a string of
length 1.6 m. A block of mass m rests on a horizontal frictionless surface. The
pendulum is released from rest at an angle of 53º with the vertical. The bob
collides elastically with the block at the lowest point in its arc. Following the
collision, the maximum angle of the pendulum with the vertical is 5.73º.
Determine the mass m.
Picture the Problem Let the zero of gravitational potential energy be at the
lowest point of the bob’s swing and note that the bob can swing either forward or
backward after the collision. We’ll use both conservation of momentum and
conservation of energy to relate the velocities of the bob and the block before
and after their collision. Choose the +x direction to be in the direction of the
motion of the block.
2
2
pm
pm
⇒m =
Km =
2m
2K m Express the kinetic energy of the
block in terms of its aftercollision
momentum:
Use conservation of energy to relate
Km to the change in the potential
energy of the bob: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Ki = 0,
Km + Uf − Ui = 0 Solve for Km, substitute for Uf and
Ui and simplify to obtain: K m = −U f + U i (1) = mbob g [L(1 − cos θ i ) − L(1 − cos θ f )]
= mbob gL[cos θ f − cos θ i ] Substitute numerical values and evaluate Km: ( ) K m = (0.40 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 (1.6 m )[cos5.73° − cos53°] = 2.47 J Conservation of Linear Momentum 827
Use conservation of energy to find
the velocity of the bob just before its
collision with the block: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Ki = Uf = 0,
Kf − Ui = 0 mbob v 2 − mbob gL(1 − cos θ i ) = 0 Substitute for Kf and Ui to obtain: 1
2 Solving for v yields: v = 2 gL(1 − cos θ i ) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate v: v = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (1.6 m )(1 − cos53°) Use conservation of energy to find
the velocity of the bob just after its
collision with the block: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Kf = Ui = 0,
− Ki + U f = 0 Substitute for Ki and Uf to obtain: − 1 mbob v'2 + mbob gL(1 − cos θ f ) = 0
2 Solve for v′: v' = 2 gL(1 − cos θ f ) Substitute numerical values and
evaluate v′: v' = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (1.6 m )(1 − cos5.73°) Use conservation of momentum to
relate pm after the collision to the
momentum of the bob just before
and just after the collision: pi = p f
or
mbob v = ± mbob v'+ p m Solve for and evaluate pm: p m = mbob v ± mbob v' ( ) = 3.536 m/s ( ) = 0.396 m/s = (0.40 kg )(3.536 m/s ± 0.396 m/s )
= 1.414 kg ⋅ m/s ± 0.158 kg ⋅ m/s Find the larger value for pm: p m = 1.414 kg ⋅ m/s + 0.158 kg ⋅ m/s
= 1.573 kg ⋅ m/s Find the smaller value for pm: p m = 1.414 kg ⋅ m/s − 0.158 kg ⋅ m/s
= 1.256 kg ⋅ m/s 828 Chapter 8
Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) to determine the
two values for m: m=
or m= (1.573 kg ⋅ m/s) 2
2(2.47 J ) = 0.50 kg (1.256 kg ⋅ m/s) 2
2(2.47 J ) = 0.32 kg 111 ••• [SSM] A 1.00kg block and a second block of mass M are both
initially at rest on a frictionless inclined plane (Figure 856) Mass M rests against
a spring that has a force constant of 11.0 kN/m. The distance along the plane
between the two blocks is 4.00 m. The 1.00kg block is released, making an
elastic collision with the unknown block. The 1.00kg block then rebounds a
distance of 2.56 m back up the inclined plane. The block of mass M comes
momentarily comes to rest 4.00 cm from its initial position. Find M.
Picture the Problem Choose the zero of gravitational potential energy at the
location of the spring’s maximum compression. Let the system include the
spring, the blocks, and Earth. Then the net external force is zero as is work done
against friction. We can use conservation of energy to relate the energy
transformations taking place during the evolution of this system. Apply conservation of energy to the
system: ΔK + ΔU g + ΔU s = 0 Because ΔK = 0: ΔU g + ΔU s = 0 Express the change in the
gravitational potential energy: ΔU g = − mgΔh − Mgx sin θ Express the change in the potential
energy of the spring: ΔU s = 1 kx 2
2 Substitute to obtain: − mgΔh − Mgx sin θ + 1 kx 2 = 0
2 Solving for M and simplifying
yields: kx 2 − mgΔh kx 2mΔh
M=
=−
gx sin 30°
g
x Relate Δh to the initial and rebound
positions of the block whose mass is
m: Δh = (4.00 m − 2.56 m )sin 30° 1
2 = 0.72 m Conservation of Linear Momentum 829
Substitute numerical values and evaluate M: M= (11.0 × 10 ) N/m (0.0400 m ) 2(1.00 kg ) (0.72 m )
−
= 8.9 kg
0.0400 m
9.81 m/s 2
3 112 ••• A neutron of mass m makes an elastic headon collision with a
stationary nucleus of mass M. (a) Show that the kinetic energy of the nucleus after
the collision is given by Knucleus = [4mM/(m + M)2]Kn, where Kn is the initial
kinetic energy of the neutron. (b) Show that the fractional change in the kinetic
energy of the neutron is given by
ΔK n
4(m M )
.
=−
Kn
(1 + [m M ])2
(c) Show that this expression gives plausible results both if m << M and m = M.
What is the best stationary nucleus for the neutron to collide headon with if the
objective is to produce a maximum loss in the kinetic energy of the neutron?
Picture the Problem In this elastic headon collision, the kinetic energy of
recoiling nucleus is the difference between the initial and final kinetic energies of
the neutron. We can derive the indicated results by using both conservation of
energy and conservation of momentum and writing the kinetic energies in terms
of the momenta of the particles before and after the collision. (a) Use conservation of energy to
relate the kinetic energies of the
particles before and after the
collision: 2
2
2
pni pnf pnucleus
=
+
2m 2m
2M (1) Apply conservation of momentum
to obtain a second relationship
between the initial and final
momenta: pni = pnf + pnucleus (2) Eliminate pnf in equation (1) using
equation (2): pnucleus pnucleus pni
+
−
=0
2M
2m
m (3) Use equation (3) to write
2
pni 2m in terms of pnucleus: 2
(M + m )
p2
pni
= K n = nucleus 2
2m
8M m (4) ⎡ 4Mm ⎤
K nucleus = K n ⎢
2⎥
⎣ (M + m ) ⎦ (5) Use equation (4) to express
2
K nucleus = pnucleus 2M in terms of Kn: 2 830 Chapter 8
(b) Relate the change in the kinetic
energy of the neutron to the aftercollision kinetic energy of the
nucleus: ΔK n = − K nucleus Using equation (5), express the
fraction of the energy lost in the
collision: ΔK n
4Mm
=−
Kn
(M + m )2 (c) If m << M: ΔK n
→ 0 as expected.
Kn I f m = M: ΔK n
4
=−
= − 1 as expected.
Kn
(1 + 1)2 =− 4(m M )
(1 + (m M ))2 113 ••• The mass of a carbon nucleus is approximately 12 times the mass of a
neutron. (a) Use the results of Problem 112 to show that after N headon
collisions of a neutron with carbon nuclei at rest, the kinetic energy of the neutron
is approximately 0.716N K0, where K0 is its initial kinetic energy. (b) Neutrons
emitted during the fission of a uranium nucleus have kinetic energies of about
2.0 MeV. For such a neutron to cause the fission of another uranium nucleus in a
reactor, its kinetic energy must be reduced to about 0.020 eV. How many headon
collisions are needed to reduce the kinetic energy of a neutron from 2.0 MeV to
0.020 eV, assuming elastic headon collisions with stationary carbon nuclei?
Picture the Problem Problem 112 (b) provides an expression for the fractional
loss of kinetic energy per collision. (a) Using the result of Problem 112
(b), express the fractional loss of
energy per collision: K nf K ni − ΔK n (M − m )
=
=
K ni
E0
(M + m )2 Evaluate this fraction to obtain: K nf (12m − m )
=
= 0.716
E0
(12m + m )2 Express the kinetic energy of one
neutron after N collisions: K nf = 0.716 N E0 (b) Substitute for Knf and E0 to
obtain: 0.716 N = 10 −8 2 2 Conservation of Linear Momentum 831
Take the logarithm of both sides
of the equation and solve for N: N= −8
≈ 55
log 0.716 114 ••• On average, a neutron actually loses only 63 percent of its energy in an
elastic collision with a hydrogen atom (not 100 percent) and 11 percent of its
energy during an elastic collision with a carbon atom (not 28 percent). (These
numbers are an average over all types of collisions, not just headon ones. Thus
the results are lower than the ones determined from analyses like that in Problem
113 because most collisions are not headon.) Calculate the actual number of
collisions, on average, needed to reduce the energy of a neutron from 2.0 MeV to
0.020 eV if the neutron collides with stationary (a) hydrogen atoms and
(b) carbon atoms.
Picture the Problem We can relate the number of collisions needed to reduce
the energy of a neutron from 2 MeV to 0.02 eV to the fractional energy loss per
collision and solve the resulting exponential equation for N. (a) Using the result of Problem 113
(b), express the fractional loss of
energy per collision: K nf K ni − ΔK n K ni − 0.63K ni
=
=
K ni
E0
K ni Express the kinetic energy of one
neutron after N collisions: K nf = 0.37 N K 0 Substitute for Knf and K0 to obtain: 0.37 N = 10 −8 Take the logarithm of both sides
of the equation and solve for N: N= (b) Proceed as in (a) to obtain: K nf K ni − ΔK n K ni − 0.11K ni
=
=
K ni
E0
K ni = 0.37 −8
≈ 19
log 0.37 = 0.89 Express the kinetic energy of one
neutron after N collisions: K nf = 0.89 N K 0 Substitute for Knf and K0 to obtain: 0.89 N = 10 −8 Take the logarithm of both sides of
the equation and solve for N: N= −8
≈ 158
log 0.89 832 Chapter 8
115 ••• [SSM] Two astronauts at rest face each other in space. One, with
mass m1, throws a ball of mass mb to the other, whose mass is m2. She catches the
ball and throws it back to the first astronaut. Following each throw the ball has a
speed of v relative to the thrower. After each has made one throw and one catch,
(a) How fast are the astronauts moving? (b) How much has the twoastronaut
system’s kinetic energy changed and where did this energy come from?
Picture the Problem Let the direction that astronaut 1 first throws the ball be the
positive direction and let vb be the initial speed of the ball in the laboratory frame.
Note that each collision is perfectly inelastic. We can apply conservation of
momentum and the definition of the speed of the ball relative to the thrower to
each of the perfectly inelastic collisions to express the final speeds of each
astronaut after one throw and one catch. (a) Use conservation of linear
momentum to relate the speeds of
astronaut 1 and the ball after the first
throw: m1v1 + mb v b = 0 (1) Relate the speed of the ball in the
laboratory frame to its speed
relative to astronaut 1: v = v b − v1 (2) Eliminate vb between equations (1)
and (2) and solve for v1: v1 = − Substitute equation (3) in equation
(2) and solve for vb: vb = Apply conservation of linear
momentum to express the speed of
astronaut 2 and the ball after the first
catch: mb
v
m1 + mb m1
v
m1 + mb 0 = mb v b = (m2 + mb )v 2 Solving for v2 yields: v2 = mb
vb
m2 + mb Express v2 in terms of v by
substituting equation (4) in equation
(6): v2 = mb
m1
v
m2 + mb m1 + mb ⎡
⎤
mb m1
=⎢
v
(m2 + mb )(m1 + mb )⎥
⎣
⎦ (3) (4)
(5) (6) (7) Conservation of Linear Momentum 833 (m2 + mb )v2 = mb vbf + m2v2f (8) Relate the speed of the ball in the
laboratory frame to its speed relative
to astronaut 2: v = v 2f − v bf (9) Eliminate vbf between equations (8)
and (9) and solve for v2f: ⎛ mb ⎞ ⎛
m1 ⎞
v2 f = ⎜
⎜ m + m ⎟ ⎜1 + m + m ⎟v (10)
⎟⎜
⎟
b ⎠⎝
1
b⎠
⎝2 Substitute equation (10) in equation
(9) and solve for vbf: ⎡ mb
⎤⎡
m1 ⎤
− 1⎥ ⎢1 +
v bf = ⎢
⎥ v (11)
⎣ m2 + mb
⎦ ⎣ m1 + mb ⎦ Use conservation of momentum to
express the speed of astronaut 2 and
the ball after she throws the ball: (m1 + mb )v1f Apply conservation of momentum to
express the speed of astronaut 1 and
the ball after she catches the ball:
Using equations (3) and (11),
eliminate vbf and v1 in equation
(12) and solve for v1f: v1f = − = mb vbf + m1v1 m2 mb (2m1 + mb ) (m1 + mb )2 (m2 + mb ) (12) v ΔK = K f − K i
or, because Ki = 0,
ΔK = K f = K 1f + K 2f (b) The change in the kinetic energy
of the system is: 2
2
= 1 m1v1f + 1 m2 v 2f
2
2 Substitute for v1f and v2f to obtain: ⎛
m2 mb (2m1 + mb ) ⎞ 2 1 ⎛ mb
⎟
⎜
ΔK = 1 m1 ⎜ −
2
⎜ (m + m )2 (m + m ) ⎟ v + 2 m2 ⎜ m + m
b
⎝2
1
b
2
b⎠
⎝
2 ⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠ 2 2 ⎛
m1 ⎞ 2
⎜1 +
⎜ m +m ⎟ v
⎟
1
b⎠
⎝ Simplify to obtain:
ΔK = 1
2 2
2
m2 mb (2m1 + mb ) ⎛
m1m2 ⎞ 2
⎜1 +
⎟v
(m2 + mb )2 (m1 + mb )2 ⎜ (m1 + mb )2 ⎟
⎝
⎠ This additional energy came from chemical energy in the astronaut’s bodies. 834 Chapter 8
116 ••• A stream of elastic glass beads, each with a mass of 0.50 g, comes out
of a horizontal tube at a rate of 100 per second (see Figure 857). The beads fall a
distance of 0.50 m to a balance pan and bounce back to their original height. How
much mass must be placed in the other pan of the balance to keep the pointer at
zero?
Picture the Problem Take the zero of gravitational potential energy to be at the
elevation of the pan and let the system include the balance, the beads, and Earth.
We can use conservation of energy to find the vertical component of the velocity
of the beads as they hit the pan and then calculate the net downward force on the
pan from Newton’s second law. Let the +y direction be upward. Use conservation of energy to relate
the y component of the bead’s
velocity as it hits the pan to its height
of fall: ΔK + ΔU = 0
or, because Ki = Uf = 0,
2
1
2 gh
2 mv y − mgh = 0 ⇒ v y = Substitute numerical values and
evaluate vy: v y = 2 9.81 m/s 2 (0.50 m ) = 3.13 m/s Express the change in momentum in
the y direction per bead:
Use Newton’s second law to
express the net force in the y
direction exerted on the pan by
the beads: ( ) Δp y = p yf − p yi = mv y − (− mv y ) = 2mv y Fnet, y = − N Δp y
Δt Δp y Letting M represent the mass to be
placed on the other pan, equate its
weight to the net force exerted by the
beads, substitute for Δpy, and solve
for M: and Substitute numerical values and
evaluate M: M = (100 / s ) − Mg = − N M= Δt N ⎛ 2mv y ⎞
⎜
⎟
Δt ⎜ g ⎟
⎝
⎠ = 32 g [2(0.00050 kg )(3.13 m/s)]
9.81m/s 2 Conservation of Linear Momentum 835
117 ••• A dumbbell, consisting of two balls of mass m connected by a
massless 1.00mlong rod, rests on a frictionless floor against a frictionless wall
with one ball directly above the other. The centertocenter distance between the
balls is equal to 1.00. The dumbbell then begins to slide down the wall as in
Figure 858. Find the speed of the bottom ball at the moment when it equals the
speed of the top ball.
Picture the Problem Assume that the connecting rod goes halfway through both
balls, i.e., the centers of mass of the balls are separated by 1.00 m. Let the system
include the dumbbell, the wall and floor, and Earth. Let the zero of gravitational
potential be at the center of mass of the lower ball and use conservation of energy
to relate the speeds of the balls to the potential energy of the system. By
symmetry, the speeds will be equal when the angle with the vertical is 45°. Use conservation of energy to
express the relationship between the
initial and final energies of the
system: Ei = E f Express the initial energy of the
system: Ei = mgL
where L is the length of the rod. Express the energy of the system
when the angle with the vertical is
45°: Ef = mgL sin 45° + 1 (2m ) v 2
2 Substitute to obtain: ⎛1⎞ 2
gL = gL⎜
⎟+v
⎝ 2⎠ Solving for v yields: 1⎞
⎛
v = gL⎜1 −
⎟
2⎠
⎝ Substitute numerical values and
evaluate v: v= (9.81m/s )(1.00 m )⎛1 −
⎜ = 1.70 m/s 2 ⎝ 1⎞
⎟
2⎠ 836 Chapter 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course PHYS 1301W taught by Professor Marshak during the Fall '08 term at Minnesota.
 Fall '08
 Marshak
 Physics, Energy, Kinetic Energy, Mass, Momentum

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