05 Gender & Socialization - Part 2

05 Gender & Socialization - Part 2 -...

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– Part 2
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Overview n Research Findings n Controversy n Gender Differences n Context Effects
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Controversy n Basic Q – Are men and women more alike than  they are different, or are they more different  than they are alike? 
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Controversy Gender similarities hypothesis vs.  differences hypothesis n 1. Gender similarities hypothesis n Janet Shibley Hyde  n Argues – males and females are similar on most, but  not all psychological variables
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Controversy Gender similarities hypothesis vs.  Differences hypothesis n 2. Differences hypothesis  n Males and females are vastly different n Dominates popular media n Exaggerates differences n sexes 
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Controversy n Gender similarities hypothesis n More alike than different   n When differences exist Most differences are close to zero, small A few are moderate Very few are large
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Testing the gender similarity hypothesis n Meta-analysis n Statistical method – aggregating research  findings across many studies of the same  findings n Calculate statistic  Effect size  Negative: female score higher  Positive: male score higher Measures - magnitude of an effect across studies  in a category (e.g. aggression)
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n Results n Support gender similarities 78% - small or close to 0 differences n Large differences Motor performance Sexuality
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Gender Differences –  Review of Meta-analyses n Large differences n Motor performance Balance, grip strength, throwing velocity, throwing  distance All in the direction where males exceed females n Sexuality Large diff in males accepting of casual sex in  uncommitted relationships  n Moderate differences n Aggression
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Research on Gender Differences n 1. Women in Paid Labor n 2. Division of Household Labor n 3. Math Performance
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Research on Gender Differences n 1. Women in Paid Labor Women earn less money than men n Explanations…. Female-dominated jobs pay less Nurse, teacher, custodial staff  Less qualified at time of hiring Human capital approach: at time of hiring they have less to  offer so start at lower salary Lower education, less experience, etc Less participation in work force, time off for  childbearing and rearing
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course HDF 304 taught by Professor Gray during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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05 Gender & Socialization - Part 2 -...

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