learning - Learning Learning Processes • Classical...

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Unformatted text preview: Learning Learning Processes • Classical conditioning • Behaviorism • Operant conditioning Adaptation to the Environment • Learning—any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual’s behavior at a future time Behaviorism • The attempt to understand observable activity in terms of observable stimuli and observable responses • John B. Watson (1913) • B. F. Skinner (1938) Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) Pavlov’s Dogs • Digestive reflexes and salivation • Psychic secretion Neutral Stimulus—Bell Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself – a bell ringing – a color – a furry object Unconditioned Stimulus— Food Always elicits a reflex action: an unconditioned response – food – blast of air – noise Unconditioned Response — Salivation A response to an unconditioned stimulus—naturally occurring – Salivation at smell of food – Eye blinks at blast of air – Startle reaction in babies Conditioned Stimulus—Bell • The stimulus that was originally neutral becomes conditioned after it has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus • Will eventually elicit the unconditioned response by itself Conditioned Response The original unconditioned response becomes conditioned after it has been elicited by the neutral stimulus Classical Conditioning Phenomenon • Extinction • Spontaneous recovery • Generalization • Discrimination training John B. Watson and Little Albert • Conditioned emotional responses • Generalization • Extinction Classical Conditioning and Drug Use...
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learning - Learning Learning Processes • Classical...

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