Explain what an information system is, contrasting its data, technology, people, and
Information systems are combinations of hardware, software, and telecommunications
networks that people build and use to collect, create, and distribute useful data, typically
in organizational settings.The technical components include the entire collection of
hardware, software, and infrastructure or network components.
This also includes the
data resources of the organization.
The people and organizational components include
the users who interact with the system on an ongoing basis, as well as the IT
professionals who operate and maintain the technical aspects of the system.
Data is raw material—recorded, unformatted information, such as words and numbers.
Data has no meaning in and of itself.Information is data that has been formatted and/or
organized in some way as to be useful to people.Knowledge is the body of governing
procedures, such as guidelines or rules, which are used to organize and manipulate data to
make it suitable for a given task. Knowledge is needed to understand relationships
between different pieces of information.Wisdom is accumulated knowledge, gained
through a combination of academic study and personal experience, that goes beyond
knowledge by representing broader, more generalized rules and schemas for
understanding a specific domain or domains; wisdom allows you to understand how to
apply concepts from one domain to new situations or problems.
Describe international business and information systems strategies used by companies
operating in a digital world.
Organizations use a variety of information systems strategies to manage international
most effectively. For example, Nestlé, one of the world’s largest food producers, with
over 500 factories and operations in more than 70 countries, is also considered to be one
the world’s most globalized companies. Firms such as Nestlé that are operating in
nations can pursue three distinct types of information systems strategies: (1)
(2) global, and (3) transnational information systems strategies (Ramarapu and Lado,