6-digestion-2[1]

6-digestion-2[1] - hen I talked about humans being like a...

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Unformatted text preview: hen I talked about humans being like a regular glazed donut (or bagel), what anatomical point was I highlighting? a) Organisms are tasty and sweet b) Organisms metabolize inside their cells c) Organisms digest food outside their body d) Fat forms globules during digestion that must be broken up before absorption e) When we swallow food it enters our cells immediately Good afternoon! • Exam have not been graded – If someone invents a time machine, I’ll have them graded by Wednesday. Otherwise, most likely next week. Sorry :( • Today we’ll continue looking into digestion • This week’s labs will be available for you in lab – But are posted online in Blackboard (and it might help to look at them in advance) Digestion Unit Outline • Introduction – Why we eat • Animal digestion – Digest vs. absorption • Where digestion occurs – How macromolecules are digested and absorbed • Carbohydrates, protein, fat – Details of absorption • Secondary active transport • Plants – Plant secondary active transport example – Where do plants get their nutrients? – Roots – structure and function – Nitrogen fixation • Other kingdoms Discussion in the beginning! • Today’s discussion will be in the beginning of lecture – We’ll talk more after a while of discussion Digestion discussion questions • What is food? What is food made up of? • How are nutrients absorbed in our small intestine? What cellular structure must they cross to get into a cell? • How are fats, proteins, and carbohydrates digested and absorbed? – Describe as many steps as you can from consumption of the macromolecule all the way through how they get to a muscle cell Starch, Glycogen, and Cellulose mages from: http://bioweb.wku.edu/courses/BIOL115/Wyatt/Biochem/Carbos.htm ttp://www.esb.utexas.edu/mabrybio211/chapter05/ch5.htm Digesting cellulose • No vertebrates possesses cellulase (or similar enzymes) that digest cellulose – But a number of vertebrates live almost exclusively on energy contained in cellulose (e.g. herbivores that eat grass) • Some fungi and bacteria do have cellulase • Vertebrates that feed on cellulose must use bacteria or fungi to get energy out of cellulose ow do animals digest cellulose if they don’t produce cellulase? (three examples) • Ruminants – Symbiotic bacteria in their rumen (4 chambered stomach) – Bacteria absorb cellulose and digest it intracellulary • Then release some digested fragments for the cow • Cow also digests some of the bacteria • Termites – Symbiotic bacteria in their gut – Bacteria release cellulase into the termite’s gut • Leafcutter ants ( Atta, Acromyrmex ) – Maintain fungal colonies on leaf cuttings – Ants consume and digest the “farmed” fungus • After the fungus has digested the cellulose Images: Cow and termite from wikipedia (public domain, ARS); leafctuter ant by Grey Wulf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:The_stronger_of_the_two.jpg Who does make cellulase?Who does make cellulase?...
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6-digestion-2[1] - hen I talked about humans being like a...

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