Matter - TheEvolutionofMatter: FromSimpletoComplex...

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The Evolution of Matter: From Simple to Complex Prof. Jackson CC105
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Music “Molecules” performed by  Chick Corea
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Today’s Lecture Regularities in chemical properties The periodic table Connection to quantum mechanics Chemical bonds: Ionic Covalent Molecules in space
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The Story of Stuff: So Far The Big Bang made hydrogen and  helium. Stars made heavy elements and  dispersed them through supernova  explosions. Gas clouds are filled with many different  elements.
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General Principle: At low  temperatures, particles tend to  prefer more binding energy and more  bound particles At high  temperatures, particles tend to  prefer more spatial freedom and more  unbound particles. In cold interstellar clouds, particles  agglomerate into atoms and molecules.
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The Atom in Physics and Chemistry Physics: electrons bound to a nucleus  Chemistry: smallest chemical unit
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Chemical Evidence for Atom Compounds combine with small, whole  number ratios of elements These ratios represent the number of  atoms that combine in each molecule of  a compound: for example                2 H 2  +  O 2       2 H 2 O Atom: smallest unit to share in  chemistry
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Crystals: Atoms packed together Atoms combine in particular geometrical  shapes Reflects the geometry of how individual  atoms combine Water Salt
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Crystals
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The Chemical Atom Combines in specific ratios Combines with particular  geometric configurations
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The Periodic Table Elements are arranged in columns  according to chemical properties; rows  according to atomic mass. Successes Organized elements in rational scheme Predicted existence of new elements Shortcoming Empirical (how, not why)
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Periodic Table
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Evidence for the Physics Atom before    Quantum Mechanics Brownian   motion ---jiggles of small  particles in a liquid can be explained by  collisions with large numbers of atoms Gas   laws- --relations between density,  temperature, and pressure---can be  explained by colliding atoms (or  molecules)
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Physics vs. Chemistry How can physics  account for  the chemical  properties of  atoms? ?
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Quantum mechanics: connecting the physics and chemistry atom ħ 2 2m 2 Ψ + VΨ = EΨ The Schrödinger Equation
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Application of Schrödinger Equation   to Atom Predicts wave function for electron  orbiting nucleus (electric force) Standing waves occur only for particular  energies
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Orbitals Standing waves of probability The chance of finding an electron is  given by the square of the wave  function at a certain location Mathematical predictions from the  Schrödinger equation
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Shapes of orbitals S  Orbital Angular momentum = 0 Spherical
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Shapes of orbitals S  Orbitals Can have several radial maxima
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Shapes of Orbitals P orbital Angular momentum = ħ Dumbbell
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3 sets of p orbitals p x p y p z x y z y x z x y z
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Orbital Shapes:  d orbitals D orbital Angular momentum = 2ћ
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Orbital Shapes:  F orbitals F orbital Angular momentum = 3ћ
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x z Since they are waves, orbitals  superpose x y z x y z P orbitals P and S orbitals y x y z x y z
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The Schrödinger Atom The atom is a nucleus surrounded by a “cloud” of electron probability x y z
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Comparison with the Bohr atom Electrons in orbit around nucleus Probability waves in constructive interference x y z
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 311 C taught by Professor Mcclelland during the Fall '09 term at University of Texas.

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Matter - TheEvolutionofMatter: FromSimpletoComplex...

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