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Unformatted text preview: 1 Unit 4 Conservation of Mass and Stoichiometry 9.1 Naming Ions I. Monatomic Ions A. Monatomic ions 1. Ions formed from a single atom B. Naming Monatomic Ions 1. Monatomic cations are a. Identified by the elements name 2. Monatomic anions a. Drop the ending of the element name b. Add an ide ending II. Polyatomic Ions A. Oxyanions 1. Polyatomic anions that contain oxygen Formula Name NO 2- Nitrite NO 3- Nitrate SO 3 2- Sulfite SO 4 2- Sulfate OH- Hydroxide PO 4 3- Phosphate CO 3 2- Carbonate ClO 3- Chlorate C 2 H 3 O 2- Acetate B. Naming a series of similar polyatomic ions ClO- C l O 2- C l O 3- C l O 4- Hypochlorite Chlorite Chlorate Perchlorate 2 9.2 Naming and Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds I. Binary Ionic Compounds A. Binary Compounds 1. Compounds composed of two different elements B. Naming Binary Ionic Compounds from Their Formulas 1. Name the cation 2. Name the anion C. The Stock System of Nomenclature 1. Roman numerals are used to denote the charge of metals that can form two or more cations. 2. The numeral is enclosed in parentheses and placed immediately after the metal name a. Iron(II) and Iron(III), pronounced iron two and iron three 3. Roman numerals are never used: a. For anions b. For metals that form only one ion D. Writing Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds 1. Write the symbols for the ions side by side. ALWAYS write the cation first! 2. Cross over the charges by using the absolute value of each ions charge as the subscript for the other ion 3. Check that the subscripts are in smallest whole number ratio E. The Stock System of Nomenclature 1. Roman numerals are used to denote the charge of metals that can form two or more cations. 2. The numeral is enclosed in parentheses and placed immediately after the metal name a. Iron(II) and Iron(III), pronounced iron two and iron three 3. Roman numerals are never used: a. For anions b. For metals that form only one ion F. Naming compounds containing polyatomic ions a. Same as for monatomic ions G. Writing formulas including polyatomic ions a. Use parentheses when you need MORE THAN one of a polyatomic ion b. Parentheses are NEVER used for monatomic ions, regardless of how many are in the formula 9.3 Naming and Writing Formulas for Molecular Compounds I. Naming Binary Molecular Compounds A. Binary Molecular Compounds 1. Covalently bonded molecules containing only two elements, both nonmetals B. Naming 1. Least electronegative element is named first 2. First element gets a prefix if there is more than 1 atom of that element 3. Second element ALWAYS gets a prefix, and an -ide ending Examples: N 2 O 3 = dinitrogen trioxide CO = carbon monoxide, not monocarbon monoxide Numerical Prefixes Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Prefix mono di tri tetra penta hexa hepta octa nona deca 9.4 Naming and Writing Formulas for Acids and Bases I. Naming Acids A. Binary Acids 1. Acids that consist of two elements, usually hydrogen and one of the halogens B. Oxyacids...
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